Thin chocolates

Thin Chocs – very thin, soft fondant, chocolate coated. A light and delicious confection, which can be made with different coloured and flavoured fondant centres.


The original Thin Mint has been enjoyed for over 50 years – one billion are made and enjoyed every year.

Thin chocolates are made with fondant pieces, chocolate coated on an enrobing machine. After enrobing, the fondant softens to give a liquid centre.




For more information on the production of Thin Chocs, please request from our Contacts page.

Heat transfer for baking

Three modes of heat transfer are used in baking biscuits: radiation, conduction and convection.

Heat transfer - ovens   

1. Direct Gas Fired / Indirect Radiant oven        2. Conduction from steel band          3. Convection oven 


All objects above a temperature of absolute zero radiate energy to their surroundings. This energy or radiation is emitted as electromagnetic waves which travel at the speed of light. The waves may travel through a vacuum or other medium. When they impact an object, they are partially absorbed and partially reflected. Good emitters are also good absorbers of thermal radiation.

Infra-red radiation is in the wavelength band of 0.7-300 microns (above visible light). Higher temperatures produce shorter wave lengths. Typical wavelengths in a radiant oven are around 4.6 – 6.4 microns, which provides good heat penetration of the dough pieces. Infrared radiation for baking is emitted principally by the DGF burner flames and by the radiant tubes in an Indirect Radiant oven.

Radiant tubes and burners

Radiant tubes in an Indirect Oven                                        High rate direct gas fired burners

The most important mode of heat transfer for baking is infrared radiation, which has the following advantages:

  • Penetrative heat transfer: Infrared radiation penetrates biscuit doughs by approximately 4mm, (depending on wavelength and moisture content). It is the only heat transfer mode to truly bake the product from the centre. This is the key advantage of baking by infrared radiation
  • Biscuit structure: because radiation penetrates the dough pieces, it is essential to achieving good structure with optimum volume and texture and is always the main mode of heat transfer in the first part of the baking process
  • Even moisture content: radiant baking ensures a low moisture gradient from centre to the outer surface of the biscuit. It is the best heat transfer mode to  avoid “checking” (cracks appearing in the biscuit after baking)
  • Efficiency: heating of the surrounding air in the baking chamber is not necessary, which lowers energy consumption
  • Colouring: radiation enables highlighted colour contrasts for crackers and rotary moulded products, whereas convection gives an overall, bland, even colour
  • Versatile: infrared baking is suitable for all types of biscuit


Conduction transfers heat from the oven band directly to the base of the dough pieces. The heat transfer is dependent on the temperature and heat mass of the oven band and the surface area of the band in contact with the dough piece. With steel bands and heavy mesh bands this approximates to full contact and is very effective.

Ovens with band pre-heat can quickly transfer heat into the base of the dough pieces and achieve rapid development of the biscuit structure and texture; this is particularly valuable for cracker baking.


Convection baking uses hot air jets which impinge directly on the top of the dough pieces and the underside of the oven band. This system effectively dries and colours the surface of the dough pieces. However it produces a hard, dry skin on the dough pieces and will prevent good expansion and “lift” of the product if used at the start of the baking process. Also it is a cause of a moisture gradient between the surface (very dry) and the centre of the biscuit (more moist). This may result in “checking”, (cracking of biscuits after baking), unless the moisture gradient is reduced after baking.

Convection v Radiation v Conduction


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Electronic sensors

Our key components file lists over 50 key components for biscuit oven construction. These components have all been used and proven and are recommended by Baker Pacific. The file for each component provides a picture, specifications and manufacturer’s details.

  1. Bearings
  2. Burners
  3. Clamping elements, chains, sprockets…….
  4. Control handles
  5. Electrical equipment
  6. Electric cable and trunking
  7. Electric sensor and monitoring equipment
  8. Fans and Blowers
  9. Gas equipment
  10. Insulation and seals
  11. Oven bands
  12. Pneumatic equipment
  13. Painting and coatings
  14. Pressure Switches
  15. PLC equipment
  16. Motors and gearboxes
  17. Motors – DC
  18. Radiant tubes
  19. Refractory
  20. Thermocouples
  21. Temperature controllers
  22. UPS

The complete Key Components file is available for USD 85.00 and may be ordered at our Contacts page.

Our second key component file includes oven burners for Direct Gas Fired ovens and burners for Indirect Fired ovens.





Euchner 1 + 2

Oven band tracking device with Euchner multi-position limit switch


Red Lion

Red Lion 1

Red Lion 2

Red Lion baking time indicator









Helium Projects Ltd

A J Thermosensors

Helium 1


Helium 2



Synatel 1

Synatel “Wirligig” speed monitor


A low cost, fully contained speed monitoring attachment, allowing easy fitting of all Synatel 18/30mm dia. & DIN standard limit switch style inductive proximity sensors/speed monitors. Simple M12 fixing. Targets are fully enclosed and require no further guarding. ATEX mechanical approval. Magnetic mounting available as an option.
Fixing M12 x 1.75mm pitch stainless steel stud
Mechanical Fixing Reinforced flexible strap.
Attach to static part of installation.
Bearing Single deep groove stainless steel ball race.
Sealed for life.
Body Material Moulded Co-polymer
Other Parts Stainless steel
Maximum speed 500 RPM
Targets 2 pulses per revolution (PPR) as standard.
1, 4 or 8 pulse available as an option
Weight 410g
Approval ATEX 1GD c Gas & Explosive Dust Hazard use
Optional > > MAGCON
Ideal for existing applications where it may not be possible to drill shaft end (due to access), or for temporary speed monitoring applications. Rare earth magnetic fixing. No drilling of shaft required. Simply screw the WG1 unit onto the Magcon and place on end of shaft.
Weight 280g


 Synatel 2







Walsall Road, Norton Canes, Cannock,
Staffordshire. WS11 9TB UK.
Tel: +44 (0) 1543 277003.
Fax: +44 (0) 1543 271217.

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