Marie is a classic hard sweet biscuit. Other examples of hard sweet biscuits are Petit Buerre, Rich Tea, Arrowroot, Morning Coffee. They are characterised by an even, attractive colour and texture and good volume. Doughs for hard sweet biscuits have the following features:
Process for Marie
Marie is a classic biscuit made throughout Europe and Asia. It has a light, crisp, delicate texture, with pale colour and clear smooth surface.
Dimensions: 66.0 mm diam.
Thickness: 6.0 mm
Weight: 8.3 g
Appearance: Smooth surface, clear printing
Colour: Pale golden
Texture: Crisp and light
Formulation (1) (2)
Flour 100.00 100.00
Cornflour 4.41 4.10
Maize flour 14.70 –
Granulated sugar 25.59 21.67
Invert syrup 80% 7.94 6.67
Butter – 4.87
Whey powder – 1.67
Margarine – 10.00
Shortening 11.03 –
Lecithin 0.57 0.50
Salt 0.88 0.70
Soda 0.67 0.58
ACP 0.08 0.16
Protease 0.02 0.02
SMS 10% solution 0.02 0.02
Whole liquid egg – 3.33
Ammonium bicarbonate 0.73 0.33
Water 26.47 17.95
Recipe (1) is a good standard Marie, Recipe (2) is a higher quality product.
1. Flour should not exceed 9.0% protein. Higher protein will result in a hard biscuit.
2. Cornflour and maize flour are used to reduce the total gluten content and make a more tender eating biscuit.
3. SMS will modify the protein to make a soft extensible dough.
4. Marie biscuits are made with medium protein flour and contain SMS to develop a soft extensible dough. The doughs are mixed on horizontal mixers to a temperature of 40-42 degrees C. The dough is sheeted and cut and is traditionally baked on a steel band.
An “all in one mix” on a horizontal mixer. Mixing is critical to developing the soft extensible dough. A mixing action which kneads the dough without too much tearing and extruding is ideal. Mixing time on a typical high speed mixer will be 20-25 minutes. Marie doughs are mixed until the required temperature is achieved. The dough should reach 40-42oC. At this temperature it should be well kneaded and of correct consistency for machining. Higher dough temperatures result in unstable doughs. The dough is used straight away without standing and it is important to maintain the temperature.
Baker Perkins High Speed Horizontal Dough Mixer
The dough may be laminated, but doughs made with SMS are usually sheeted without lamination. Dough scrap incorporation is very important and should be very even and consistent. The temperature of the scrap dough should be as close as possible to the temperature of the new dough. Dough sheet reduction should be gentle and should not exceed the ratio of 2.5:1.
Typical roll gaps are:
Forcing roll gap on sheeter: 18.0 mm
Gauging gap on sheeter: 9.0 mm
1st gauge roll 5.7 mm
2nd gauge roll 2.5 mm
Final gauge roll 1.1 mm (Cutting thickness: 1.3 mm)
The doughs shrink and require good relaxation before cutting. Separate cutting and printing rolls on the rotary cutter are recommended to achieve good, clear printing and docker holes, (piercing of holes in the dough pieces).
Cutter design for Maria showing the docker pin arrangement. Note the dough piece is cut as an oval shape to compensate for shrinkage during baking. Drawing and design by ErreBi Technology
Baker Perkins forming line with rotary cutting machine
Steam may be used at the oven entry to achieve a high humidity. This will improve the surface finish of the biscuit.
Baking time: 5.0 – 6.5 minutes
Temperatures: 200 / 220 / 180oC
Moisture: Less than 1.5%
A hybrid oven is ideal with Direct Gas Fired zones followed by Indirect Radiant or Convection zones. The convection zones will dry the product well and ensure an even bland colour, but care must be taken to ensure a low moisture gradient between the centre of the biscuit and the surface, otherwise the product will be prone to “checking”. Adequate baking and cooling time are required.
Baker Pacific Direct Gas Fired / Indirect Radiant oven
A ratio of cooling to baking time should be at least 1.5:1. This will help to avoid checking (cracking of the biscuits after packaging due to an internal moisture gradient).