How efficient is your oven? – The products

Each product takes an amount of energy for baking for achieve the correct structure, moisture content and colour. The energy required varies with each type of biscuit, crackers, short dough biscuits and cookies. Each individual biscuit also varies depending on the formulation and quality of the ingredients and the final structure, moisture content and colour required.

Biscuits

Energy is required to bake biscuits as follows:

  1. The dry ingredients must be raised in temperature from ambient to baking temperature
  2. The water in the dough must be raised in temperature from ambient to 100oC
  3. Energy must be provided for the latent heat of evaporation
  4. The water vapour must be raised from 100oC to the baking temperature

The following is a guide to the approximate energy required for different categories of biscuits.

Rotary moulded biscuits:        0.17 – 0.20 kWh/kg of baked biscuits

Hard sweet biscuits:                0.25 – 0.27 kWh/kg of baked biscuits

Crackers:                                 0.30 – 0.33 kWh/kg of baked biscuits

Note: These are theoretical calculations and this is an approximate guide only. Calculations should be made for each formulation and baking profile.

 Read more with “Baking Process and Engineering” manual. 

Biscuit catalogue – crackers

A wide range of products characterised by crispy, open texture and savoury flavours. Crackers include soda and saltine crackers, cream crackers, snack crackers, water biscuits, puff biscuits, maltkist (sugar topped cracker), “TUC” type, “Ritz” type, vegetable crackers. In general crackers may have some of the following features which influence the baking process:

  • Doughs which are leavened and fermented with ingredients such as yeast, ammonia and  sodium bicarbonate
  • Doughs generally have a high water content (15 – 25%)
  • Cracker doughs are laminated, (the dough sheet is made up from multiple thin layers)
  • Cracker doughs spring or lift in the first part of the oven to achieve the open, flaky texture. This requires humidity and high heat input.
  • Some crackers are baked in strips or complete sheets and broken into individual products after baking
  • Some crackers require a colour contrast between dark blisters and a pale background colour
  • Traditional English crackers such as cream crackers and water biscuits are normally  baked on light wire-mesh bands
  • Traditional American crackers, such as soda or saltine are baked on heavy mesh oven bands which are pre-heated to transfer heat rapidly by conduction into the dough pieces
  • Crackers are baked to low moisture contents (1.5% – 2.5%), which requires a high energy input

 

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