Biscuit, Cookie and Cracker Production

 

Author: Iain Davidson

eBook ISBN: 9780128155806

Paperback ISBN: 9780128155790

Imprint: Academic Press

Pages:  244   Published: July 2018

 

 
 
 

Key Features

  • Covers the complete processed food production line, from raw materials to packaged product
  • Shows, in detail, the process, production and packaging equipment for biscuits, cookies and   crackers with more than 200 pictures.

Contents

  1. The Biscuits
    2. Ingredient storage and handling
    3. Dough Mixing
    4. Dough Feed Systems
    5. Dough Forming: Biscuit cutting machines
    6. Dough Piece Forming: Laminating
    7. Dough Piece Forming: Rotary Moulding
    8. Dough Piece Forming: Depositing
    9. Biscuit Baking Ovens
    10. Oven Conveyor Bands
    11. Oil Spray machines
    12. Biscuit Cooling and handling
    13. Biscuit Sandwiching
    14. Biscuit Packaging
    15. Biscuit Production
    16. Ingredients for biscuits
    17. Test Bakery

Visit http://www.elsevier.com  

https://www.elsevier.com/books/biscuit-cookie-and-cracker-production/davidson/978-0-12-815579-0

Direct Gas Fired Ovens

 

How to build a biscuit oven

Front Cover new

Publishing date to be announced

Description

The book enables a small team to build high quality Direct Gas Fired ovens. The Baker Pacific team of five engineers have manufactured a range of ovens for biscuits, crackers, cookies and cake with local contractors in China, India and Indonesia. Our experience, technical information and drawings are now available for companies who wish to build Direct Gas Fired biscuit ovens.

Our book describes the complete oven building process with photos, assembly drawings and parts lists, together with descriptions of the work in 15 stages.

In addition Baker Pacific can supply a complete set of manufacturing drawings together with all detail technical information and support.

This will allow small teams in biscuit bakeries and contract engineering companies to build ovens locally. The ovens can be built in a low cost environment with minimum shipping cost and requirement for hard currency.

Key features

  • Description of each stage of building and installing the oven with photos
  • All main assembly/layout drawings
  • All parts lists
  • Key component specifications and suppliers
  • Detail oven specifications

Readership

Senior management staff and engineers in contract engineering companies, biscuit manufacturers and companies supplying production and baking equipment in the food industry world – wide.

Author                                                                  

Iain DavidsonPhoto - Iain 1

Iain graduated from the School of Industrial Design (Engineering) at Royal College of Art in London in 1965 and joined Baker
Perkins Ltd. He was Industrial Design Engineer, working in the Technical Department on the design of new biscuit and bakery processing machines until 1975, gaining a thorough technical knowledge of the machines and processes.

In 1975, Iain was appointed Market Development Manager at Baker Perkins, involved in developing the Baker Perkins forward planning for new business, product development and acquisitions. In 1979 Iain became International Sales Manager with responsibility for the business in Asia and Africa.

In 1990 Iain was appointed Regional Manager Asia Pacific for Baker Perkins and re-located to Indonesia and later in 1997 to China. His appointments included Managing Director of Baker Perkins (Hong Kong) Ltd. and Director of Baker Perkins Japan KK.

Iain established a successful manufacturing facility for biscuit ovens in Dalian, China in 1990 for Baker Perkins and subsequently continued a manufacturing capability for Baker Pacific Ltd. in China, India and Indonesia.

Baker Pacific companies

Iain established PT Baker Pacific Mandiri in Indonesia in 2000. As the business outside Indonesia grew, Baker Pacific Ltd was established in Hong Kong in 2004 and is now our principal operating company, providing process technology and machinery for the biscuit, chocolate and candy industries.

Experience in the biscuit industry

  • Engineering design of biscuit process machines including a range of baking ovens
  • Biscuit baking oven manufacture in China, Indonesia and India
  • Sales and marketing in Europe, Asia, North America, Africa
  • Project management and service

 

Price for additional drawings on application to Baker Pacific Ltd.

To order or for more information:

Contact Baker Pacific Ltd. at our Contact Page or by email to: bakerman@bakerpacific.com.hk

Table of Contents

1. Why build a biscuit oven?                                Page 1

1.1 Growing world-wide market for biscuits

1.2 Limited number of suppliers

1.3 Biscuit oven manufacture

1.4 Biscuit baking process

1.5 What is required?

2. What type of oven?                                                      7

3. Heat transfer and heat ratings                              10

3.1 Heat transfer

3.2 Radiation

3.3 Conduction

3.4 Convection

3.5 Oven designs

3.6 Heat rating

3.6.1 Crackers

3.6.2 Short doughs

3.7 Multi-purpose ovens

4. Direct Gas Fired Oven specifications                 18

4.1 Oven output

4.2 Calculation of oven zone lengths

4.3 Calculating the number and type of burners

4.4 Recommended burners

4.5 Technical specification for a multi-purpose oven

4.5.1 Oven feed end

4.5.2 Direct Gas Fired Oven 89.9m long, 7 zones

4.5.3 Direct Gas Fired burners and gas system

4.5.4 Automatic temperature control

4.5.5 Oven band

4.5.6 Oven band cleaner

4.5.7 Delivery end section

4.5.8 Emergency drive

4.5.9 Oven end extraction hood

4.5.10 Control panels

4.6 Oven safety systems

4.6.1 Oven band

4.6.2 Ignition

4.6.3 Purge system

4.6.4 Over temperature

4.6.5 Power failure

4.7 Electrical installation

4.8 Components

4.9 Finishes

4.10 Spare parts

5. Selecting the oven conveyor band                    28

5.1 Products

5.1.1 Crackers

5.1.2 Semi-sweet biscuits and short doughs

5.1.3 Cookies

5.2 Open wire mesh bands

5.3 Compound balanced weave belts (heavy mesh)

5.4 Steel bands

6. Purchasing and Shipping                                      33

6.1 Purchasing

6.1.1 Contractors for fabrication

6.1.2 Purchase of specialist components

6.2 Shipping

7. Manufacturing drawings                                    41

7.1 Design layout drawings

7.2 Oven construction

7.2.1 Modular construction and build on site

7.2.2 Manufacture and installation of the oven

7.3 Drawing numbers

7.4 Parts lists

7.5 Electrical drawings

7.6 Control panel fascias

8. Construction of the Direct Gas Fired Oven     52

8.1 Stage 1: Oven base structure

8.2 Stage 3: Baking chamber slides

8.3 Stage 4: Baking chambers

8.4 Stage 5: Crown sheets, explosion panels, extraction

8.4.1 Explosion panels

8.4.2 Extraction ducts

8.5 Stage 6: Frames for outer covers and fan supports

8.6 Stage 7: Clean out and inspection doors, wall sheets

8.6.1 Clean out doors

8.6.2 Inspection doors

8.6.3 Oven insulation

8.7 Stage 8: Extraction fans and dampers

8.8 Stage 9: Air header pipes

8.9 Stage 10: Gas header pipes

8.10 Stage 11: Outer covers for control side

8.10.1 Outer covers

8.11 Stage 12: Gas burners

8.11.1 Eratec MFB burners installation

8.11.2 Burner specification

8.11.3 Flynn burners and gas system

8.12 Stage 13: oven roof sheets

8.13 Stage 14: Outer covers on non-burner side

8.14 Stage 15: Oven extensions

9. Oven conveyor construction: feed/tension end  102

9.1 Oven band circuit

9.2 Conveyor feed / tension end

9.3 Feed end unit: Final assembly

9.4 Oven end drum and shaft assembly

9.5 Drum bearing and mount assembly

9.6 Oven feed end frame assembly

9.7 Pneumatic tension assembly

9.8 Plough assembly

9.9 Drum scraper assembly

9.10 Oven band tracking: band wander warning

9.11 Oven feed/tension end covers

10. Oven conveyor construction: delivery/drive end  125

10.1 Delivery/drive end arrangement

10.2 Drive end frame

10.3 Delivery end drum

10.4 Bearings, sprockets and drive train

10.5 Motor and gearbox

10.6 UPS Uninterruptible Power Supply

10.7 Stripping knife

10.8 Stripping conveyor

10.9 Drum scraper

10.10 Drive end band wander warning

10.11 Delivery end outer covers

10.12 Oven end hood design

10.13 Calculations for oven band drive

10.13.1 Calculation of oven band tension

10.13.2 Calculations of torque required for drive

11. Conveyor construction: oven bands                   159

11.1 Wire mesh bands

11.1.1 Skid bar supports

11.1.2 Return band supports

11.1.3 Wire mesh oven band cleaning

11.1.4 Wire mesh oven band tracking

11.1.5 Joining wire mesh bands

11.2 Compound balanced weave belts (heavy mesh)

11.2.1 Band support rollers

11.2.2 Heavy mesh band tracking

11.3 Steel bands

11.3.1 Steel band supports

11.3.2 Steel band tracking

12. Key Components                                                   180

12.1 Bearings

12.2 Burners

12.3 Clamping elements, chains, sprockets….

12.4 Electrical equipment

12.5 Electrical cable and trunking

12.6 Electric sensor and monitoring equipment

12.7 Fans and blowers

12.8 Gas equipment

12.9 Insulation and seals

12.10 Oven bands

12.11 Pneumatic equipment

12.12 Painting and coatings

12.13 Pressure switches

12.14 PLC equipment

12.15 Motors and gearboxes

12.16 Motors – DC

12.17 Thermocouples

12.18 Temperature controllers

12.19 UPS

13. Oven installation                                                    204

13.1 Factory layout drawings

13.2 Oven installation equipment

13.2.1 List of equipment required for the installation

13.2.2 Centre line

13.3 Oven installation

13.3.1 Installation stages

13.3.2 Stage 1: Oven support structure

13.3.3 Stage 3: Bottom oven sheets and slides

13.4 Stage 4: Baking chambers

13.4.1 Welding of the baking chambers

13.4.2 Installation of oven band supports

13.5 Crown sheets, explosion panels, extraction ducts

13.6 Frames for covers

13.7 Clean out doors, inspection doors

13.8 Extraction fans and dampers

13.9 Air header pipes

13.10 Gas header pipes

13.11 Outer covers, insulation, main air pipe

13.12 Gas burners and equipment

13.13 Roof sheets

13.14 Outer covers

13.15 Electrical installation

13.16 Oven band installation

13.16.1 Oven band tracking

13.16.2 Joining wire mesh oven bands

13.16.3 Joining compound balanced weave bands

13.16 4 Joining steel bands

13.16.5 Oven band cleaner

14. Disclaimer                                                                229

 APPENDIX: Operations and Maintenance Manual

_________________________________________________________________

 For more information:

Contact Baker Pacific Ltd. at our Contact Page or by email to: bakerman@bakerpacific.com.hk

LOGO 2014

 


 

 

 

 

Baking by infrared radiation

DIRECT GAS FIRED AND INDIRECT RADIANT OVENS

 

Button     Baking by infrared radiation provides a stable penetrative heat transfer, baking the  product from the inside and creating excellent volume, texture and flavour
Button     Suitable for all types of products except high rate crackers, particularly suitable for all snack crackers, soft dough biscuits and cookies and hard sweet biscuits
Button     Combination DGF / Indirect Radiant ovens are the optimum specification for most biscuit baking, allowing the baker to use different rates and modes of heat transfer at different stages of the baking process
Button     Indirect Radiant ovens are suitable for our Heat Recovery System, giving the  best fuel efficiency as shown by independent test

 

 

DGF oven

                                                              Baker Pacific Direct Gas Fired Oven                                                                    

 

Featured pic

                                                             Baker Pacific Indirect Radiant Oven with Heat Recovery System

 

DIRECT GAS FIRED / INDIRECT RADIANT  is a suitable combination oven for products such as crackers, hard sweet biscuits, soft dough biscuits. Products, such as crackers and hard sweet biscuits requiring high heat input in the first part of the baking process to establish good structure and volume are baked effectively by a direct gas fired oven section followed by an indirect radiant oven section. The length of this direct fired section is usually one third of the total length of the oven and the power input of the direct fired section is one half of the total power input of the oven. The indirect radiant oven section will contribute to the optimum development of texture and colour of a wide range of crackers and biscuits.
 
Summary of the Heat Transfer modes

 

Convection - radiation - Conduction

 

For enquiries and more information please contact Baker Pacific at bakerman@bakerpacific.com.hk

LOGO 2014

 

 

Biscuit Baking Technology

PUBLISHED BY ACADEMIC PRESS 2016 An imprint of Elsevier

DESCRIPTION

Biscuit Baking Technology, Second Edition, is a reference book for senior managers and staff involved in industrial scale biscuit baking. It covers the biscuit industry process, ingredients, formulations, besides design, manufacture, installation, operation and maintenance of the baking ovens.

Written by an expert on the biscuit baking industry, the book is a complete manual guide that will help engineering, production and purchasing managers and staff in the biscuit industry to make the best decisions on oven efficiency purchasing.

CONTENTS

  1. The Biscuits
  2. Baking process
  3. Biscuit design and output
  4. Heat transfer
  5. Oven designs
  6. Oven specifications: hybrid ovens
  7. Oven construction: Direct Gas Fired Ovens
  8. Oven construction: Indirect Fired Ovens
  9. Heat Recovery System
  10. Oven conveyor bands
  11. Oven conveyor design
  12. Process control systems
  13. Oven safety monitoring and alarm
  14. Oven operation: Direct Gas Fired Oven
  15. Oven operation: Indirect radiant Oven
  16. Oven efficiency
  17. Oven inspection and audit

APPENDICES

  1. Ingredients for biscuits
  2. Maintenance
  3. Combustion data
  4. Oven manufacturers
  5. Oven band manufacturers

 

 

 

For more information contact Baker Pacific at bakerman@bakerpacific.com.hk

 

Burners for infrared baking

BURNERS FOR DIRECT GAS FIRED OVENS

DGF oven burners use a “zero pressure” gas system. The burners ignite and burn a gas/air mixture. The gas is supplied to the gas/air mixer unit at nominally zero pressure. The air is supplied at a positive, controlled pressure. An increase in air pressure increases the flame and the heat input to the baking chamber. The gas may be natural gas, town gas (manufactured from coal), or LPG (liquid petroleum gas).

Gas train

Mains gas is supplied from a factory system to the oven where it is regulated by a “gas train”. This consists of the following equipment:

  • Manual shut off valve
  • Two – automatic shut off valves for safety the system
  • Gas filter
  • Zero pressure gas governor
  • Gas pressure high/low detection
  • Gas pressure gauges (2) at gas inlet and outlet of gas train
  • Gas valve tightness proving facility (to check for a leakage of gas)
  • Main gas pipes and gas distribution system

The gas is fed to header pipes running along each zone of the oven at the top and bottom. The headers are connected to each burner by flexible hoses and via a solenoid valve and gas/air mixer.

 

 

Gas train

Gas train

Combustion air

In each zone the air is fed to the air header pipes from an air blower mounted on top of the oven. The air is drawn from the bakery and is filtered. The air pressure for the burner system is controlled by motorized valves which are regulated by the automatic temperature control system or by a variable speed inverter drive for the fan.

Moro air blower for combustion air

Moro air blower for combustion air

ERATEC MFB BURNERS

FIG_7-1.28

FIG_7-1.29

 Eratec high rate infra-red ribbon burners for Direct Gas Fired Ovens

  • Direct heat transfer by radiation (without contact and air movement)
  • High radiant power density 100 – 1000KW/m2
  • Precise control and power modulation
  • Energy consumption savings compared to conventional Direct Gas Fired Burners (up to 20% saving depending on the oven and number of burners)
  • Low pollution (up to 80% less CO and NOX)
  • Safe for people and equipment (no burn back)
  • Low maintenance

 

Infra-red baking

Baker Pacific Direct Gas Fired oven zones with Eratec MFB burners

www.era-tec.fr

FLYNN BURNER CORPORATION

Flynn pipe gas burner

Flynn pipe gas burner

 

 

Stainless steel corrugated  burner strip

Stainless steel corrugated burner strip

 

Flynn distributor burner for multi-flame control

Flynn distributor burner for multi-flame control

FIG_7-1.26

 

Baker Pacific Direct Gas Fired oven with Flynn burners

Baker Pacific Direct Gas Fired oven with Flynn burners

 

www.flynnburner.com

 

BURNERS FOR INDIRECT FIRED OVENS

Each oven zone has one burner firing into a burner tube connected to a heat exchanger system. The hot air and burnt gas circulates in the heat exchanger and does not enter the baking chamber. Fuel may be gas or diesel oil. Burners may be specifies for either fuel or dual fuel.

MAX WEISHAUPT GMBH

Weishaupt burner on an Indirect Radiant oven

Technical description

The Weishaupt WG burner is a forced draught gas burner. For biscuit oven applications, the burner should always be a fully modulating type. The burner comprises the following features:

Combustion manager

  • Microprocessor control and monitoring of all burner functions
  • LCD display
  • Keypad operation
  • Data bus connection
  • Integrated valve proving of the solenoid valves
  • Flame sensor: Monitors the flame during operation. If a problem occurs, a safety lockout will operate
  • Double solenoid valve
  • Gas pressure governor. Controlled pressure is set by an adjusting screw
  • Air/gas ratio control provides optimization over control range
  • 2 solenoid (Class A) valves
  • Gas filter
  • Low gas pressure switch
  • Gas pressure switch for automatic valve proving
  • Air pressure switch: Loss of combustion air pressure activates a safety shut down
Weishaupt WG burner

Weishaupt WG burner

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Picture courtesy of Max Weishaupt GmbH

 

Weishaupt gas train

Weishaupt gas train

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Specification: Weishaupt burner WG30N/1-C ZM LN

(for 1.25m wide Indirect Radiant Oven) Version: modulating via 3 term switching and Buyer’s PID controller

  • Fuel: natural gas
  • Gas pressure: 30mbar
  • Rating capacity: 40-350kW
  • Electro motor: 1ph, 0.42kW, 230V, 50Hz
  • Combustion manager: Siemens Type W-FM20
  • Flame monitor
  • Continuous running fan
  • Gas valve train size 1”
  • Double Magnetic Valve (DMV)
  • Gas pressure switch
  • Gas pressure regulator assembly with safety valve
  • Gas pressure inlet: (max.) 2.5 bar
  • Gas pressure outlet: 20 mbar
  • Gas filter
  • Gas ball valve

Weishaupt burners- features:

  • The digital combustion management system ensures that only exactly the amount of energy is consumed that is needed at the time.
  • Weishaupt Low NOx technology (standard for gas burners, optional for oil burners) is exemplary in reducing emissions with special mixing assemblies for intensive flue gas recirculation
  • All W range burners work fully automatically. Powerful microprocessors continuously control and monitor the combustion process for maximum efficiency.
  • The transversely mounted fan draws air through a sound attenuated inlet.
  • The W range offers oil and gas burners in five ratings from 12 kW to 570 kW.
  • More than 50 years of experience and development work have gone into Weishaupt burner technology. Only the best materials are used.
Baker Pacific Indirect Radiant oven with Weishaupt burners

Baker Pacific Indirect Radiant oven with Weishaupt burners

www.weishaupt.co.uk      www.weishaupt.de

 

MAXON BURNERS

FIG_7-2.25

 

Maxon 5155SP dual fuel burner

Maxon 5155SP dual fuel burner

 

 

 

Specification for a 1.2m wide Indirect Radiant oven: Maxon OVENPAK 515 gas/oil burner

  • Maximum heat release: 1,250,000 Btu/hr (366kW)
  • Minimum heat release: 77,000 Btu/hr (22.5kW)
  • Oil pressure required: 60 psig (4.13 bar)
  • Natural gas pressure: 0 bar (to be reduced to 0.005 bar)
  • Compressed air required: 60 psig (4.13 bar)

Each burner is complete with:

  • Pilot adjustable orifice
  • UV sensor device
  • Dual type nozzle for oil/gas operation
  • Integral combustion air blower
  • Servo motor
  • Ignition transformer
  • Air pressure switch

Maxon Gas Trains

  • Gas strainer
  • Gas cock
  • Main gas regulator, size 1 ¼”
  • Pressure gauge for up stream (0-30psig)
  • Pressure gauge for down stream (0-15″ WG)
  • Low pressure switch (.5 – 4″ WG)
  • High pressure switch (5 – 28″ WG)
  • Maxon solenoid valve series 5000
  • Solenoid valve

Pilot gas train

  • Pilot regulator: high pressure regulator
  • Pilot solenoid: general purpose type
  • Pressure switch for pilot
  • Outlet pressure gauge
  • Locking ball valve

Oil pipe train

  • Oil filter, size 3/8″
  • Oil pressure regulator, size 3/8″
  • Low pressure switch
  • High pressure switch
  • Solenoid valve for burner
  • Locking ball valve
  • Fuel: diesel oil

Compressed air train

  • Air filter
  • Air pressure regulator
  • Air pressure switch for low air pressure
  • Solenoid valve for burner

???????????????????????????????

                     Baker Pacific Indirect Radiant oven: 1.2m x 100m with Maxon dual fuel burners and Heat Recovery System

www.maxoncorp.com

 

LOGO 2014

 

 

 

Biscuit design and output

Book image for post

.

 

The following notes from Chapter 3, introduce various factors of biscuit design and forming of the dough pieces which influence the baking operation

Cutter and moulding roll layouts

 The design of the cutting rolls and moulding rolls and dies for deposited cookies determine the pattern of dough pieces on the oven band. The cutting and moulding rolls are designed to give the maximum number of dough pieces per square metre of oven band. In the design of dies for cookies, allowance is made for the spread of the dough on the oven band during baking.Normally the rolls are designed to provide a separation of about 8-10mm between the edges of the biscuits on the oven band. The distance between dough pieces must also allow a sufficiently strong scrap dough lattice to be lifted without breakage after the cutter for cut biscuits.

Rectangular biscuits are baked with the short edge leading, which aids control during cooling, stacking and feeding to the packaging machines. Round biscuits may be “nested” to gain the maximum loading on the oven band.

FIG_3.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1  Rotary moulding roll engraving          

 

 

FIG_3.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2  “ Scrap-less” cutting roll with docker pins and   perforated  edges for the crackers                                          

Scrap and scrap-less designs

 Hard sweet and cracker biscuits are produced from a continuous sheet of dough. The biscuit shape is cut, printed and perforated before being deposited (panned) onto the oven band. Most products are cut into separate individual dough pieces before baking. The scrap dough around the dough pieces is recovered after the dough pieces are cut and returned to the  sheeting machine at the start of the forming process.

Some products, notably soda crackers and some snack crackers are baked in a continuous sheet. The dough sheet is perforated so that it can be easily and automatically broken after baking into the individual biscuits. When products are presented to the oven as a large sheet, there are several considerations.

  1. The edges of the sheet at each side will pick up more heat from the edges of the band, which are not covered by the dough. The edge biscuits will therefore have more colour and this can be excessive. Oven band screens are used on some oven designs which deflect hot air away from the band edges. These are adjustable and will reduce the movement of hot air at the band edge and hence reduce the colour of the edge biscuits. In severe cases the biscuits may be baked with edge scrap dough which is removed after baking. Alternatively steps may sometimes be taken to reduce the temperature of the band edges by forced cooling.
  1. Cracker dough sheets usually shrink during baking and this can cause random breaks at the perforations on the edge of individual biscuits. These random breaks cause problems after baking at the automatic breakers as the biscuit sheets are presented irregularly. It is therefore worthwhile to reduce the size of the dough sheets and these may be cut through at approximately 1.0m length by a large diameter cutting roll (approximately 320mm in diameter). Alternatively the crackers may be cut and baked in strips.

 

 

FIG_3.3

 

 

 

1  Baker Perkins rotary cutter and scrap lift        

 

FIG_3.4

                                                     

 

 

 

 

 

 

2   Crackers cut in strips

 

 

 Most moulded and deposited cookies are formed and baked individually. Some extruded products, such as filled bars may be baked in continuous “ropes” and cut after baking. Layer cakes are baked in continuous sheets and slit and cut after baking.

 

layer cake oven 2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  Layer cake baked on a Baker Pacific Indirect Radiant oven with steel band

 

Docker pins

During baking, biscuits and crackers expand and lift to form a light open texture. During this process, rapid expansion of water vapour in the dough pieces occurs and the vapour needs to be released. This is accomplished by a series of holes in the biscuit design, called docker holes.  The docker holes are placed in the design to release the vapour evenly and maintain a flat surface and even thickness of the biscuit. This accurate control of flatness and thickness is essential to the successful automatic packaging of the biscuits.

FIG_3.7

Biscuits with docker holes

FIG_3.8

FIG_3.9

Cutter design for Maria showing the docker pin arrangement. Note the dough piece is cut as an oval shape to compensate for shrinkage during baking.  Drawing and design by ErreBi Technology

 Oven band loadings

 The band loading (weight of dough pieces on the oven band) will vary considerably depending on the biscuit design, band layout, biscuit weight, water content in the dough. The loading will influence the design of the oven band supports, drive and tracking system.

                                                               Biscuit                      Oven band loading

                                               dimensions    weight           dough          biscuits     

                                                   mm                  g                    kg/m          kg/m2


“Ritz” type cracker                   48 diam.          3.0                   1.40                 1.04

Vegetable crackers                   48 x 48            3.75                 1.50                 1.17

Soda crackers                            91 x 44 (pair)  6.25                 2.13                 1.48

Marie                                           66 diam.          8.3                   2.00                 1.67

Glucose                                        58 x 37            5.2                   1.92                 1.70

Butter cookie (moulded)          46 x 29            6.0                    3.23                 2.86

Wire cut cookie                          50 diam.          6.5                   2.14                 2.00

Choc chip cookies                      55 diam.          15                    4.40                 4.10


approximate figures based on typical recipes

Oven size and output

 Usually the oven is the critical item in determining the capacity of a complete biscuit line. Other considerations are mixing capacity, forming machine speeds, cooling and packing capacity, these are usually specified to suit the oven capacity.

The output of biscuits from an oven is determined by the baking time and the oven size. To determine the output from an oven, we calculate the number of biscuits across the width of the oven band and multiply this by the number of biscuits contained in the length of the oven. This gives the total number of biscuits contained on the oven band during baking. We divide this by the baking time in minutes and this gives the total of biscuits which will be baked in one minute. The output is usually expressed as the number of biscuits baked in one minute, or in kg of biscuits baked in one hour.

For example, we can calculate the output for a typical rectangular moulded biscuit based on the following data:

Oven size (band width):                                    1200 mm

Oven size (baking chamber length):                60.0 m

Biscuit size:                                                          57 x 35 mm

 Biscuit weight:                                                    4.5g

 Baking time:                                                        3.8 mins

 Output calculation

Biscuits across the oven band:                          27 (allow 43 mm pitch)

Biscuits in the length of the oven:                    923 (allow 65 mm pitch)

Total biscuits contained on the oven band     27 x 923 = 24,921

Biscuits baked per minute:                          24,921 / 3.8 = 6,558

Oven output in kg/hour:                               6,558 x 60 x 4.5 / 1000 = 1,770 kg/hour


Summary

  1.  The cutting and moulding rolls are designed to provide the optimum oven band loading.
  2. Consideration is given to the spacing between dough pieces on the band, the spread of cookies during baking and the orientation for the cooling and packing.
  3. Some products such as soda crackers and snack crackers can be baked in a continuous sheet. Care must be taken to avoid excessive edge colour and irregular breakage of the dough sheet in the oven.
  4. Docker pins are used to create holes in the dough pieces to allow the escape of water vapour and to control the surface form of the biscuit, giving a regular flat surface with even blisters on crackers and hard sweet biscuits.
  5. Biscuit output from the production line is usually determined by the size of the oven. The output is calculated from the biscuit size and weight, oven loading, oven band width, length of the baking chamber and the baking time.

References

Baker Perkins Group:  www.bakerperkinsgroup.com 2015

Errebi Technology Srl:  www.errebi.net 2015

Manley D. Technology of Biscuits, Crackers and Cookies. Woodhead Publishing Ltd.1996

Manley D. Biscuit, cracker and cookie recipes for the food industry. Woodhead Publishing Ltd.2001.


 

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Sugar cacao 1

 

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Process Guide for Marie

Marie is a classic hard sweet biscuit. Other examples of hard sweet biscuits are Petit Buerre, Rich Tea, Arrowroot, Morning Coffee. They are characterised by an even, attractive colour and texture and good volume. Doughs for hard sweet biscuits have the following features:

Button   Doughs have strong, developed gluten which gives an elastic dough, which is sheeted and cut. It often shrinks in the first stage of baking

Button   Doughs have low sugar and fat

Button   Doughs have water contents typically of around 12%

Button   Biscuits are normally baked on a wire-mesh band (except for Marie which is traditionally baked on a steel band)

Button   Humidity in the first part of the baking is important to achieve good volume and a smooth surface sheen

Button   Biscuits are baked to low moisture contents, around 1.5% – 3.0%

1 Hard sweet biscuits

 

Process for Marie

2 Marie biscuit

 

Description

Marie is a classic biscuit made throughout Europe and Asia. It has a light, crisp, delicate texture, with pale colour and clear smooth surface.

 

Product specification

Dimensions:                            66.0 mm diam.

Thickness:                                6.0 mm

Weight:                                     8.3 g

Appearance:                            Smooth surface, clear printing

Colour:                                     Pale golden

Texture:                                  Crisp and light

Moisture:                                1.5%

 

Formulation               (1)                         (2)

Flour                                        100.00                         100.00

Cornflour                                 4.41                             4.10

Maize flour                             14.70               –

Granulated sugar                    25.59                           21.67

Invert syrup 80%                     7.94                             6.67

Butter                                      –                                   4.87

Whey powder              –                                               1.67

Margarine                               –                                   10.00

Shortening                                11.03                           –

Lecithin                                      0.57                           0.50

Salt                                              0.88                           0.70

Soda                                            0.67                            0.58

ACP                                             0.08                           0.16

Protease                                     0.02                           0.02

SMS 10% solution                    0.02                           0.02

Whole liquid egg                         –                                3.33

Ammonium bicarbonate         0.73                            0.33

Water                                         26.47                           17.95

 

Recipes

Recipe (1) is a good standard Marie, Recipe (2) is a higher quality product.

 

Critical ingredients

1. Flour should not exceed 9.0% protein. Higher protein will result in a hard biscuit.

2. Cornflour and maize flour are used to reduce the total gluten content and make a more tender eating biscuit.

3. SMS will modify the protein to make a soft extensible dough.

4. Marie biscuits are made with medium protein flour and contain SMS to develop a soft extensible dough. The doughs are mixed on horizontal mixers to a temperature of 40-42 degrees C. The dough is sheeted and cut and is traditionally baked on a steel band.

 

Mixing

An “all in one mix” on a horizontal mixer. Mixing is critical to developing the soft extensible dough. A mixing action which kneads the dough without too much tearing and extruding is ideal. Mixing time on a typical high speed mixer will be 20-25 minutes. Marie doughs are mixed until the required temperature is achieved. The dough should reach 40-42oC. At this temperature it should be well kneaded and of correct consistency for machining. Higher dough temperatures result in unstable doughs. The dough is used straight away without standing and it is important to maintain the temperature.

Crackers 3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Baker Perkins High Speed Horizontal Dough Mixer

Forming

The dough may be laminated, but doughs made with SMS are usually sheeted without lamination. Dough scrap incorporation is very important and should be very even and consistent. The temperature of the scrap dough should be as close as possible to the temperature of the new dough. Dough sheet reduction should be gentle and should not exceed the ratio of 2.5:1.

Typical roll gaps are:

Forcing roll gap on sheeter:               18.0 mm

Gauging gap on sheeter:                    9.0 mm

1st gauge roll                                         5.7 mm

2nd gauge roll                                       2.5 mm

Final gauge roll                                     1.1 mm  (Cutting thickness: 1.3 mm)

The doughs shrink and require good relaxation before cutting. Separate cutting and printing rolls on the rotary cutter are recommended to achieve good, clear printing and docker holes, (piercing of holes in the dough pieces).

4 Errebi cutter design

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cutter design for Maria showing the docker pin arrangement. Note the dough piece is cut as an oval shape to compensate for shrinkage during baking. Drawing and design by ErreBi Technology

 

Crackers 4

Baker Perkins forming line with rotary cutting machine

Baking

Steam may be used at the oven entry to achieve a high humidity. This will improve the surface finish of the biscuit.

Baking time:                5.0 – 6.5 minutes

Temperatures:             200 / 220 / 180oC

Moisture:                       Less than 1.5%

A hybrid oven is ideal with Direct Gas Fired zones followed by Indirect Radiant or Convection zones. The convection zones will dry the product well and ensure an even bland colour, but care must be taken to ensure a low moisture gradient between the centre of the biscuit and the surface, otherwise the product will be prone to “checking”. Adequate baking and cooling time are required.

7 DGF  IR oven

 

Baker Pacific Direct Gas Fired / Indirect Radiant oven

Cooling

A ratio of cooling to baking time should be at least 1.5:1. This will help to avoid checking (cracking of the biscuits after packaging due to an internal moisture gradient).

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Author: Iain Davidson

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A manual for designers and operators on the biscuit oven – baking technology

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION

1 THE BISCUITS

2 BAKING PROCESS

3 BISCUIT DESIGN AND OUTPUT

4 HEAT TRANSFER

5 OVEN DESIGNS

6 OVEN SPECIFICATIONS: hybrid ovens

7-1 CONSTRUCTION: Direct Gas Fired Ovens

7-2 OVEN CONSTRUCTION: Indirect Fired Ovens

7-3 HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEM

8 OVEN CONVEYOR BANDS

9 OVEN CONVEYOR DESIGN

10 PROCESS CONTROL SYSTEMS

11 OVEN SAFETY MONITORING AND ALARM

12-1 OVEN OPERATION: Direct Gas Fired Oven

12-2 OVEN OPERATION: Indirect radiant Oven

13 OVEN EFFICIENCY

14 OVEN INSPECTION AND AUDIT

APPENDIX 1 Ingredients for biscuits

APPENDIX 2 Oven maintenance

APPENDIX 3 Oven manufacturers

APPENDIX 4 Oven band manufacturers

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Baker Pacific Ltd. 3905 Two Exchange Square, 8 Connaught Place, Hong Kong

Tel. +852 2522 1114       email: bakerman@dircon.co.uk      

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