Biscuit Baking Technology

PUBLISHED BY ACADEMIC PRESS 2016 An imprint of Elsevier

DESCRIPTION

Biscuit Baking Technology, Second Edition, is a reference book for senior managers and staff involved in industrial scale biscuit baking. It covers the biscuit industry process, ingredients, formulations, besides design, manufacture, installation, operation and maintenance of the baking ovens.

Written by an expert on the biscuit baking industry, the book is a complete manual guide that will help engineering, production and purchasing managers and staff in the biscuit industry to make the best decisions on oven efficiency purchasing.

CONTENTS

  1. The Biscuits
  2. Baking process
  3. Biscuit design and output
  4. Heat transfer
  5. Oven designs
  6. Oven specifications: hybrid ovens
  7. Oven construction: Direct Gas Fired Ovens
  8. Oven construction: Indirect Fired Ovens
  9. Heat Recovery System
  10. Oven conveyor bands
  11. Oven conveyor design
  12. Process control systems
  13. Oven safety monitoring and alarm
  14. Oven operation: Direct Gas Fired Oven
  15. Oven operation: Indirect radiant Oven
  16. Oven efficiency
  17. Oven inspection and audit

APPENDICES

  1. Ingredients for biscuits
  2. Maintenance
  3. Combustion data
  4. Oven manufacturers
  5. Oven band manufacturers

 

 

 

For more information contact Baker Pacific at bakerman@bakerpacific.com.hk

 

Process Guide for Marie

Marie is a classic hard sweet biscuit. Other examples of hard sweet biscuits are Petit Buerre, Rich Tea, Arrowroot, Morning Coffee. They are characterised by an even, attractive colour and texture and good volume. Doughs for hard sweet biscuits have the following features:

Button   Doughs have strong, developed gluten which gives an elastic dough, which is sheeted and cut. It often shrinks in the first stage of baking

Button   Doughs have low sugar and fat

Button   Doughs have water contents typically of around 12%

Button   Biscuits are normally baked on a wire-mesh band (except for Marie which is traditionally baked on a steel band)

Button   Humidity in the first part of the baking is important to achieve good volume and a smooth surface sheen

Button   Biscuits are baked to low moisture contents, around 1.5% – 3.0%

1 Hard sweet biscuits

 

Process for Marie

2 Marie biscuit

 

Description

Marie is a classic biscuit made throughout Europe and Asia. It has a light, crisp, delicate texture, with pale colour and clear smooth surface.

 

Product specification

Dimensions:                            66.0 mm diam.

Thickness:                                6.0 mm

Weight:                                     8.3 g

Appearance:                            Smooth surface, clear printing

Colour:                                     Pale golden

Texture:                                  Crisp and light

Moisture:                                1.5%

 

Formulation               (1)                         (2)

Flour                                        100.00                         100.00

Cornflour                                 4.41                             4.10

Maize flour                             14.70               –

Granulated sugar                    25.59                           21.67

Invert syrup 80%                     7.94                             6.67

Butter                                      –                                   4.87

Whey powder              –                                               1.67

Margarine                               –                                   10.00

Shortening                                11.03                           –

Lecithin                                      0.57                           0.50

Salt                                              0.88                           0.70

Soda                                            0.67                            0.58

ACP                                             0.08                           0.16

Protease                                     0.02                           0.02

SMS 10% solution                    0.02                           0.02

Whole liquid egg                         –                                3.33

Ammonium bicarbonate         0.73                            0.33

Water                                         26.47                           17.95

 

Recipes

Recipe (1) is a good standard Marie, Recipe (2) is a higher quality product.

 

Critical ingredients

1. Flour should not exceed 9.0% protein. Higher protein will result in a hard biscuit.

2. Cornflour and maize flour are used to reduce the total gluten content and make a more tender eating biscuit.

3. SMS will modify the protein to make a soft extensible dough.

4. Marie biscuits are made with medium protein flour and contain SMS to develop a soft extensible dough. The doughs are mixed on horizontal mixers to a temperature of 40-42 degrees C. The dough is sheeted and cut and is traditionally baked on a steel band.

 

Mixing

An “all in one mix” on a horizontal mixer. Mixing is critical to developing the soft extensible dough. A mixing action which kneads the dough without too much tearing and extruding is ideal. Mixing time on a typical high speed mixer will be 20-25 minutes. Marie doughs are mixed until the required temperature is achieved. The dough should reach 40-42oC. At this temperature it should be well kneaded and of correct consistency for machining. Higher dough temperatures result in unstable doughs. The dough is used straight away without standing and it is important to maintain the temperature.

Crackers 3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Baker Perkins High Speed Horizontal Dough Mixer

Forming

The dough may be laminated, but doughs made with SMS are usually sheeted without lamination. Dough scrap incorporation is very important and should be very even and consistent. The temperature of the scrap dough should be as close as possible to the temperature of the new dough. Dough sheet reduction should be gentle and should not exceed the ratio of 2.5:1.

Typical roll gaps are:

Forcing roll gap on sheeter:               18.0 mm

Gauging gap on sheeter:                    9.0 mm

1st gauge roll                                         5.7 mm

2nd gauge roll                                       2.5 mm

Final gauge roll                                     1.1 mm  (Cutting thickness: 1.3 mm)

The doughs shrink and require good relaxation before cutting. Separate cutting and printing rolls on the rotary cutter are recommended to achieve good, clear printing and docker holes, (piercing of holes in the dough pieces).

4 Errebi cutter design

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cutter design for Maria showing the docker pin arrangement. Note the dough piece is cut as an oval shape to compensate for shrinkage during baking. Drawing and design by ErreBi Technology

 

Crackers 4

Baker Perkins forming line with rotary cutting machine

Baking

Steam may be used at the oven entry to achieve a high humidity. This will improve the surface finish of the biscuit.

Baking time:                5.0 – 6.5 minutes

Temperatures:             200 / 220 / 180oC

Moisture:                       Less than 1.5%

A hybrid oven is ideal with Direct Gas Fired zones followed by Indirect Radiant or Convection zones. The convection zones will dry the product well and ensure an even bland colour, but care must be taken to ensure a low moisture gradient between the centre of the biscuit and the surface, otherwise the product will be prone to “checking”. Adequate baking and cooling time are required.

7 DGF  IR oven

 

Baker Pacific Direct Gas Fired / Indirect Radiant oven

Cooling

A ratio of cooling to baking time should be at least 1.5:1. This will help to avoid checking (cracking of the biscuits after packaging due to an internal moisture gradient).

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Caramel

Home feature pic

All our caramels have  a long shelf life at ambient temperatures, stable colour, flavour, texture and moisture content
Our recipes and process inhibit moisture migration from the caramel to the biscuit ………. so that the caramel stays soft and the biscuit stays crisp
The caramels are made with European technology with only the finest natural ingredients, compliant with Halal approval and without preservatives, artificial colours or flavours

Our Caramels

Button    Premium caramel

A rich, creamy, smooth caramel with intense flavour

Button    Economy caramel

An excellent low cost caramel for sandwich and chocolate coated products. Made with alternative vegetable fats and re-constituted milk

Button    Honey caramel

A new caramel with pure Indonesian honey

Button    Caramel syrup

A simple caramel made without dairy products; good flavour, smooth texture and long life

We provide process technology for making our range of caramels, including formulations, complete process details and technical support

 

 

 

For enquiries and more information contact

Caramel Kitchen logo

bakerman@dircon.co.uk

 Baker Pacific Ltd. 3905 Two Exchange Square, Suite 7443, 8 Connaught Place, Hong Kong

Tel. +852 2522 1114   Fax.  +852 2521 1190

Training courses

Baking process and engineering – baking by infrared

  Individual company programs 

Button    The training programs are designed to suit each company’s requirements. Especially valuable for production management, engineering, maintenance staff  and oven operators.

Button    The programs include class work with Power Point presentations, discussion and  questionnaires. The training may also includes on-site training by our senior engineer. This can cover trouble shooting, oven operation, maintenance, planning oven up-grades and efficiency improvements

Button    Normally 2 – 3 modules are presented each day and the complete course is delivered in a 5 day week

Button    Each of our technicians has over 35 years experience as engineers in the biscuit industry in factories in Europe, Asia, North and South America

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Baker Pacific oven installations baking by infrared radiation

Training Modules

Complete course in one week

Day 1   Introduction / the biscuits / baking process / biscuit design and output

Day 2   Heat transfer / oven designs and specifications

Day 3   Oven bands and conveyor design

Day 4   Oven control / safety systems / oven operation

Day 5   Oven maintenance / inspection and audit / oven efficiency / heat recovery

 

Our training program has exclusive information on:

Button   All types of oven designs / direct and indirect fired / radiant / convection / re-circ ovens

Button   Specifying ovens for different applications for biscuits, cookies and crackers

Button   Setting standards and guarantees for suppliers

Button   Oven bands: types, tracking, cleaning, supporting on skids and rollers

Button   Oven efficiencies with actual data from trials

Button   Energy usage and energy loss

Button   Heat recovery system to save capital and operating costs

Button   Oven operation and maintenance

Button   Oven inspections and audits

 500 Power Point presentation slides

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Complete course given by a senior Baker Pacific engineer USD 4,500.00

(excluding travel and living expenses)

Alternative: complete course materials for in-house presentations USD 240.00

To order please contact Baker Pacific at bakerman@dircon.co.uk

 

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Crackers………………………..

Successful crackers from Europe, USA and Asia………………..

Cracker baking

A wide range of products characterised by crispy, open texture and savoury flavours. Crackers include soda and saltine crackers, cream crackers, snack crackers, water biscuits, puff biscuits, maltkist (sugar topped cracker), “TUC” type, “Ritz” type, vegetable crackers.

In general crackers may have some of the following features which influence the baking process:

  • Doughs which are leavened and fermented with ingredients such as yeast, ammonia and sodium bicarbonate
  • Doughs generally have a high water content (15 – 25%)
  • Cracker doughs are laminated, (the dough sheet is made up from multiple thin layers)
  • Cracker doughs spring or lift in the first part of the oven to achieve the open, flaky texture. This requires humidity and high heat input.
  • Some crackers are baked in strips or complete sheets and broken into individual products after baking
  • Some crackers require a colour contrast between dark blisters and a pale background colour
  • Traditional English crackers such as cream crackers and water biscuits are normally baked on light wire-mesh bands
  • Traditional American crackers, such as soda or saltine are baked on heavy mesh oven bands which are pre-heated to transfer heat rapidly by conduction into the dough pieces
  • Crackers are baked to low moisture contents (1.5% – 2.5%), which requires a high energy input

 

DGF oven

 

Baker Pacific Direct Gas Fired Oven for cracker baking 

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How efficient is your oven? – The products

Each product takes an amount of energy for baking for achieve the correct structure, moisture content and colour. The energy required varies with each type of biscuit, crackers, short dough biscuits and cookies. Each individual biscuit also varies depending on the formulation and quality of the ingredients and the final structure, moisture content and colour required.

Biscuits

Energy is required to bake biscuits as follows:

  1. The dry ingredients must be raised in temperature from ambient to baking temperature
  2. The water in the dough must be raised in temperature from ambient to 100oC
  3. Energy must be provided for the latent heat of evaporation
  4. The water vapour must be raised from 100oC to the baking temperature

The following is a guide to the approximate energy required for different categories of biscuits.

Rotary moulded biscuits:        0.17 – 0.20 kWh/kg of baked biscuits

Hard sweet biscuits:                0.25 – 0.27 kWh/kg of baked biscuits

Crackers:                                 0.30 – 0.33 kWh/kg of baked biscuits

Note: These are theoretical calculations and this is an approximate guide only. Calculations should be made for each formulation and baking profile.

 Read more with “Baking Process and Engineering” manual. 

Chocolate countlines

Chocolate countlines are a major sector of the confectionery market. They represent a key impulse buying item. The UK market is the largest in Europe with annual sales of chocolate to reach £6.7bn. The leading manufacturers are Cadbury and Mars.

It is notable that of 8 featured products below, the average age is 63 years since introduction. The oldest is Cadbury Dairy Milk, introduced over 100 years ago. These products dominate the shelves of the UK retailers and make it difficult and expensive for newcomers to break into the market.

Baker Pacific have extensive process know-how for chocolate, biscuit, wafer, caramel…. Please check our team’s experience at our page “About”, and request further information at our “Contacts”page.

Cadbury Dairy Milk         

originally introduced in 1905, “with a glass and a half of fresh milk”, now with a wide range of flavours and fillings

DAIRY MILK

Galaxy

from Mars, also sold as “Dove” in many countries

GALAXY

 

Kit Kat

a world-wide favourite. The origin of the brand was at Rowntrees UK (now Nestle) in 1911. The Kit Kat bar was sold under the name Kit Kat Chocolate Crisp from 1937

KIT KAT

 

 Mars 

the original “work, rest and play”, first manufactured in UK in 1932, the plant in Slough UK, now produces 3 million bars a day

MARS

 

Twix

great balance of chocolate, caramel and biscuit, first produced by Mars in UK in 1967.

TWIX

Snickers

peanut favourite from Mars with annual sales exceeding USD 2.0m

SNICKERS

Bounty

exceptional coconut product from Mars, introduced in UK and Canada in 1951

Bounty

Lion bar

caramel and wafer from Rowntrees (now Nestle), popular since 1970’s

LION

Twirl

Twirl from Cadbury Ireland, introduced in the 1970’s and now with two “flake” style bars

TWIRL

Tunnocks

Tunnocks caramel wafer, “Scotland’s favourite”  – 5,000,000 are made and sold every week.

TUNNOCKS

Rocky

Rocky from Fox’s Biscuits, with thick milk chocolate

ROCKY

Kinder Bueno

From Ferrero, Italy, introduced in 1990 and now a popular world-wide product

BUENO

Cadbury Wispa

Low density chocolate for a light snack, 30% lighter than a similar volume of chocolate.

WISPA

More information from:

www.sweetretailing.co.uk

www.foodmanufacture.co.uk

www.iriworldwide.co.uk

www.ferrero-trade.co.uk

www.euromonitor.com


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Go! potato

Cracker oven

Baker Pacific oven baking crackers by infrared radiation in China


Go!potato, a very thin, well made potato cracker by Siantar Top, Indonesia. The company, founded in 1988 has become a leading and innovative maker of snacks, biscuits and noodles with revenue of IDR 1.82tn.

Packs in and outer

The cracker is flat, approximately 1.36mm thick and of even colour.

Multi bisc pic

Ingredients: wheat flour, fresh potato, sugar, vegetable shortening and oil, glucose, soya lecithin, MSG, protease, colour, tartrazine CI19140.

PT Siantar Top Tbk,

Jl. Tambak Sawah 21-23, Waru,

Sidoarjo 61258

Indonesia

Go face bite!

Scottish Shortbread

Header pic

 

 

 

 

 

 

Baker Pacific ovens bake by infrared radiation. This is the ideal heat transfer method for producing high quality products, with excellent texture and  flavour.

Scottish shortbread – rich and delicious. Traditionally made with 3 parts fine pastry flour, 2 parts butter and 1 part sugar (by weight). Petticoat tails may also have caraway seeds added. At New Year, Hogmanay in Scotland, the shortbread may be decorated with candied citrus peel and “sweetie” almonds.

Shortcake is similar, but made with vegetable oil and a leavening agent.

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