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Biscuit, Cookie and Cracker Production

 

Author: Iain Davidson

eBook ISBN: 9780128155806

Paperback ISBN: 9780128155790

Imprint: Academic Press

Pages:  244   Published: July 2018

 

 
 
 

Key Features

  • Covers the complete processed food production line, from raw materials to packaged product
  • Shows, in detail, the process, production and packaging equipment for biscuits, cookies and   crackers with more than 200 pictures.

Contents

  1. The Biscuits
    2. Ingredient storage and handling
    3. Dough Mixing
    4. Dough Feed Systems
    5. Dough Forming: Biscuit cutting machines
    6. Dough Piece Forming: Laminating
    7. Dough Piece Forming: Rotary Moulding
    8. Dough Piece Forming: Depositing
    9. Biscuit Baking Ovens
    10. Oven Conveyor Bands
    11. Oil Spray machines
    12. Biscuit Cooling and handling
    13. Biscuit Sandwiching
    14. Biscuit Packaging
    15. Biscuit Production
    16. Ingredients for biscuits
    17. Test Bakery

Visit http://www.elsevier.com  

https://www.elsevier.com/books/biscuit-cookie-and-cracker-production/davidson/978-0-12-815579-0

Baking by infrared radiation

DIRECT GAS FIRED AND INDIRECT RADIANT OVENS

 

Button     Baking by infrared radiation provides a stable penetrative heat transfer, baking the  product from the inside and creating excellent volume, texture and flavour
Button     Suitable for all types of products except high rate crackers, particularly suitable for all snack crackers, soft dough biscuits and cookies and hard sweet biscuits
Button     Combination DGF / Indirect Radiant ovens are the optimum specification for most biscuit baking, allowing the baker to use different rates and modes of heat transfer at different stages of the baking process
Button     Indirect Radiant ovens are suitable for our Heat Recovery System, giving the  best fuel efficiency as shown by independent test

 

 

DGF oven

                                                              Baker Pacific Direct Gas Fired Oven                                                                    

 

Featured pic

                                                             Baker Pacific Indirect Radiant Oven with Heat Recovery System

 

DIRECT GAS FIRED / INDIRECT RADIANT  is a suitable combination oven for products such as crackers, hard sweet biscuits, soft dough biscuits. Products, such as crackers and hard sweet biscuits requiring high heat input in the first part of the baking process to establish good structure and volume are baked effectively by a direct gas fired oven section followed by an indirect radiant oven section. The length of this direct fired section is usually one third of the total length of the oven and the power input of the direct fired section is one half of the total power input of the oven. The indirect radiant oven section will contribute to the optimum development of texture and colour of a wide range of crackers and biscuits.
 
Summary of the Heat Transfer modes

 

Convection - radiation - Conduction

 

For enquiries and more information please contact Baker Pacific at bakerman@bakerpacific.com.hk

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Biscuit Process Guides

Baker Pacific’s portfolio of product specifications, formulations and process data is extensive. It includes a wide range of biscuits, cookies and crackers. Our comprehensive Product Process Guides are available for each listed biscuit at USD 85.00. Each manual has the following details to enable you to make an excellent product.

CONTENTS OF A BAKER PACIFIC BISCUIT PROCESS GUIDE

Product Description
Product specification
Production output
Nutritional data
Formulation
Critical ingredients / ingredient specifications
Production process / Quality control
Production machines
Packaging styles 

Products available from our Portfolio:

 

 CRACKERS

 

 SANDWICH BISCUITS

 

HARD SWEET BISCUITS

SHORT DOUGH BISCUITS

 

COOKIES

 

 You may order a Biscuit Process Guide our Contacts page for USD 85.00 per product by email to bakerman@bakerpacific.com.hk with name, company and address for the invoice

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Biscuit design and output

Book image for post

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The following notes from Chapter 3, introduce various factors of biscuit design and forming of the dough pieces which influence the baking operation

Cutter and moulding roll layouts

 The design of the cutting rolls and moulding rolls and dies for deposited cookies determine the pattern of dough pieces on the oven band. The cutting and moulding rolls are designed to give the maximum number of dough pieces per square metre of oven band. In the design of dies for cookies, allowance is made for the spread of the dough on the oven band during baking.Normally the rolls are designed to provide a separation of about 8-10mm between the edges of the biscuits on the oven band. The distance between dough pieces must also allow a sufficiently strong scrap dough lattice to be lifted without breakage after the cutter for cut biscuits.

Rectangular biscuits are baked with the short edge leading, which aids control during cooling, stacking and feeding to the packaging machines. Round biscuits may be “nested” to gain the maximum loading on the oven band.

FIG_3.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1  Rotary moulding roll engraving          

 

 

FIG_3.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2  “ Scrap-less” cutting roll with docker pins and   perforated  edges for the crackers                                          

Scrap and scrap-less designs

 Hard sweet and cracker biscuits are produced from a continuous sheet of dough. The biscuit shape is cut, printed and perforated before being deposited (panned) onto the oven band. Most products are cut into separate individual dough pieces before baking. The scrap dough around the dough pieces is recovered after the dough pieces are cut and returned to the  sheeting machine at the start of the forming process.

Some products, notably soda crackers and some snack crackers are baked in a continuous sheet. The dough sheet is perforated so that it can be easily and automatically broken after baking into the individual biscuits. When products are presented to the oven as a large sheet, there are several considerations.

  1. The edges of the sheet at each side will pick up more heat from the edges of the band, which are not covered by the dough. The edge biscuits will therefore have more colour and this can be excessive. Oven band screens are used on some oven designs which deflect hot air away from the band edges. These are adjustable and will reduce the movement of hot air at the band edge and hence reduce the colour of the edge biscuits. In severe cases the biscuits may be baked with edge scrap dough which is removed after baking. Alternatively steps may sometimes be taken to reduce the temperature of the band edges by forced cooling.
  1. Cracker dough sheets usually shrink during baking and this can cause random breaks at the perforations on the edge of individual biscuits. These random breaks cause problems after baking at the automatic breakers as the biscuit sheets are presented irregularly. It is therefore worthwhile to reduce the size of the dough sheets and these may be cut through at approximately 1.0m length by a large diameter cutting roll (approximately 320mm in diameter). Alternatively the crackers may be cut and baked in strips.

 

 

FIG_3.3

 

 

 

1  Baker Perkins rotary cutter and scrap lift        

 

FIG_3.4

                                                     

 

 

 

 

 

 

2   Crackers cut in strips

 

 

 Most moulded and deposited cookies are formed and baked individually. Some extruded products, such as filled bars may be baked in continuous “ropes” and cut after baking. Layer cakes are baked in continuous sheets and slit and cut after baking.

 

layer cake oven 2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  Layer cake baked on a Baker Pacific Indirect Radiant oven with steel band

 

Docker pins

During baking, biscuits and crackers expand and lift to form a light open texture. During this process, rapid expansion of water vapour in the dough pieces occurs and the vapour needs to be released. This is accomplished by a series of holes in the biscuit design, called docker holes.  The docker holes are placed in the design to release the vapour evenly and maintain a flat surface and even thickness of the biscuit. This accurate control of flatness and thickness is essential to the successful automatic packaging of the biscuits.

FIG_3.7

Biscuits with docker holes

FIG_3.8

FIG_3.9

Cutter design for Maria showing the docker pin arrangement. Note the dough piece is cut as an oval shape to compensate for shrinkage during baking.  Drawing and design by ErreBi Technology

 Oven band loadings

 The band loading (weight of dough pieces on the oven band) will vary considerably depending on the biscuit design, band layout, biscuit weight, water content in the dough. The loading will influence the design of the oven band supports, drive and tracking system.

                                                               Biscuit                      Oven band loading

                                               dimensions    weight           dough          biscuits     

                                                   mm                  g                    kg/m          kg/m2


“Ritz” type cracker                   48 diam.          3.0                   1.40                 1.04

Vegetable crackers                   48 x 48            3.75                 1.50                 1.17

Soda crackers                            91 x 44 (pair)  6.25                 2.13                 1.48

Marie                                           66 diam.          8.3                   2.00                 1.67

Glucose                                        58 x 37            5.2                   1.92                 1.70

Butter cookie (moulded)          46 x 29            6.0                    3.23                 2.86

Wire cut cookie                          50 diam.          6.5                   2.14                 2.00

Choc chip cookies                      55 diam.          15                    4.40                 4.10


approximate figures based on typical recipes

Oven size and output

 Usually the oven is the critical item in determining the capacity of a complete biscuit line. Other considerations are mixing capacity, forming machine speeds, cooling and packing capacity, these are usually specified to suit the oven capacity.

The output of biscuits from an oven is determined by the baking time and the oven size. To determine the output from an oven, we calculate the number of biscuits across the width of the oven band and multiply this by the number of biscuits contained in the length of the oven. This gives the total number of biscuits contained on the oven band during baking. We divide this by the baking time in minutes and this gives the total of biscuits which will be baked in one minute. The output is usually expressed as the number of biscuits baked in one minute, or in kg of biscuits baked in one hour.

For example, we can calculate the output for a typical rectangular moulded biscuit based on the following data:

Oven size (band width):                                    1200 mm

Oven size (baking chamber length):                60.0 m

Biscuit size:                                                          57 x 35 mm

 Biscuit weight:                                                    4.5g

 Baking time:                                                        3.8 mins

 Output calculation

Biscuits across the oven band:                          27 (allow 43 mm pitch)

Biscuits in the length of the oven:                    923 (allow 65 mm pitch)

Total biscuits contained on the oven band     27 x 923 = 24,921

Biscuits baked per minute:                          24,921 / 3.8 = 6,558

Oven output in kg/hour:                               6,558 x 60 x 4.5 / 1000 = 1,770 kg/hour


Summary

  1.  The cutting and moulding rolls are designed to provide the optimum oven band loading.
  2. Consideration is given to the spacing between dough pieces on the band, the spread of cookies during baking and the orientation for the cooling and packing.
  3. Some products such as soda crackers and snack crackers can be baked in a continuous sheet. Care must be taken to avoid excessive edge colour and irregular breakage of the dough sheet in the oven.
  4. Docker pins are used to create holes in the dough pieces to allow the escape of water vapour and to control the surface form of the biscuit, giving a regular flat surface with even blisters on crackers and hard sweet biscuits.
  5. Biscuit output from the production line is usually determined by the size of the oven. The output is calculated from the biscuit size and weight, oven loading, oven band width, length of the baking chamber and the baking time.

References

Baker Perkins Group:  www.bakerperkinsgroup.com 2015

Errebi Technology Srl:  www.errebi.net 2015

Manley D. Technology of Biscuits, Crackers and Cookies. Woodhead Publishing Ltd.1996

Manley D. Biscuit, cracker and cookie recipes for the food industry. Woodhead Publishing Ltd.2001.


 

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Innovative chocolate coating

Electrostatic spraying provides a thin layer of sugar/cacao on biscuits

  • New product with low chocolate cost

  • Excellent adhesion

  • Minimum waste

Sugar cacao 1

 

Electrostatic spray heads reciprocate across the width of the conveyor

For more information contact Baker Pacific at bakerman@dircon.co.uk

 

Process Guide for Marie

Marie is a classic hard sweet biscuit. Other examples of hard sweet biscuits are Petit Buerre, Rich Tea, Arrowroot, Morning Coffee. They are characterised by an even, attractive colour and texture and good volume. Doughs for hard sweet biscuits have the following features:

Button   Doughs have strong, developed gluten which gives an elastic dough, which is sheeted and cut. It often shrinks in the first stage of baking

Button   Doughs have low sugar and fat

Button   Doughs have water contents typically of around 12%

Button   Biscuits are normally baked on a wire-mesh band (except for Marie which is traditionally baked on a steel band)

Button   Humidity in the first part of the baking is important to achieve good volume and a smooth surface sheen

Button   Biscuits are baked to low moisture contents, around 1.5% – 3.0%

1 Hard sweet biscuits

 

Process for Marie

2 Marie biscuit

 

Description

Marie is a classic biscuit made throughout Europe and Asia. It has a light, crisp, delicate texture, with pale colour and clear smooth surface.

 

Product specification

Dimensions:                            66.0 mm diam.

Thickness:                                6.0 mm

Weight:                                     8.3 g

Appearance:                            Smooth surface, clear printing

Colour:                                     Pale golden

Texture:                                  Crisp and light

Moisture:                                1.5%

 

Formulation               (1)                         (2)

Flour                                        100.00                         100.00

Cornflour                                 4.41                             4.10

Maize flour                             14.70               –

Granulated sugar                    25.59                           21.67

Invert syrup 80%                     7.94                             6.67

Butter                                      –                                   4.87

Whey powder              –                                               1.67

Margarine                               –                                   10.00

Shortening                                11.03                           –

Lecithin                                      0.57                           0.50

Salt                                              0.88                           0.70

Soda                                            0.67                            0.58

ACP                                             0.08                           0.16

Protease                                     0.02                           0.02

SMS 10% solution                    0.02                           0.02

Whole liquid egg                         –                                3.33

Ammonium bicarbonate         0.73                            0.33

Water                                         26.47                           17.95

 

Recipes

Recipe (1) is a good standard Marie, Recipe (2) is a higher quality product.

 

Critical ingredients

1. Flour should not exceed 9.0% protein. Higher protein will result in a hard biscuit.

2. Cornflour and maize flour are used to reduce the total gluten content and make a more tender eating biscuit.

3. SMS will modify the protein to make a soft extensible dough.

4. Marie biscuits are made with medium protein flour and contain SMS to develop a soft extensible dough. The doughs are mixed on horizontal mixers to a temperature of 40-42 degrees C. The dough is sheeted and cut and is traditionally baked on a steel band.

 

Mixing

An “all in one mix” on a horizontal mixer. Mixing is critical to developing the soft extensible dough. A mixing action which kneads the dough without too much tearing and extruding is ideal. Mixing time on a typical high speed mixer will be 20-25 minutes. Marie doughs are mixed until the required temperature is achieved. The dough should reach 40-42oC. At this temperature it should be well kneaded and of correct consistency for machining. Higher dough temperatures result in unstable doughs. The dough is used straight away without standing and it is important to maintain the temperature.

Crackers 3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Baker Perkins High Speed Horizontal Dough Mixer

Forming

The dough may be laminated, but doughs made with SMS are usually sheeted without lamination. Dough scrap incorporation is very important and should be very even and consistent. The temperature of the scrap dough should be as close as possible to the temperature of the new dough. Dough sheet reduction should be gentle and should not exceed the ratio of 2.5:1.

Typical roll gaps are:

Forcing roll gap on sheeter:               18.0 mm

Gauging gap on sheeter:                    9.0 mm

1st gauge roll                                         5.7 mm

2nd gauge roll                                       2.5 mm

Final gauge roll                                     1.1 mm  (Cutting thickness: 1.3 mm)

The doughs shrink and require good relaxation before cutting. Separate cutting and printing rolls on the rotary cutter are recommended to achieve good, clear printing and docker holes, (piercing of holes in the dough pieces).

4 Errebi cutter design

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cutter design for Maria showing the docker pin arrangement. Note the dough piece is cut as an oval shape to compensate for shrinkage during baking. Drawing and design by ErreBi Technology

 

Crackers 4

Baker Perkins forming line with rotary cutting machine

Baking

Steam may be used at the oven entry to achieve a high humidity. This will improve the surface finish of the biscuit.

Baking time:                5.0 – 6.5 minutes

Temperatures:             200 / 220 / 180oC

Moisture:                       Less than 1.5%

A hybrid oven is ideal with Direct Gas Fired zones followed by Indirect Radiant or Convection zones. The convection zones will dry the product well and ensure an even bland colour, but care must be taken to ensure a low moisture gradient between the centre of the biscuit and the surface, otherwise the product will be prone to “checking”. Adequate baking and cooling time are required.

7 DGF  IR oven

 

Baker Pacific Direct Gas Fired / Indirect Radiant oven

Cooling

A ratio of cooling to baking time should be at least 1.5:1. This will help to avoid checking (cracking of the biscuits after packaging due to an internal moisture gradient).

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Biscuit Baking Technology, 2nd Edition

Biscuit process and engineering manual – now available for Pre-Order at www.store.elsevier.com/9780128042113

For author’s 30% discount use code: ATR30

Cover 281015

 

 

Author: Iain Davidson

Expected release: 01 February 2016

Imprint: Academic Press

Print book ISBN: 9780128042113

Pages: 384

Dimensions: 229 x 152

Print Book: GBP 106.25

Paperback: GBP 125.00

 

 

 

 

 

A manual for designers and operators on the biscuit oven – baking technology

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION

1 THE BISCUITS

2 BAKING PROCESS

3 BISCUIT DESIGN AND OUTPUT

4 HEAT TRANSFER

5 OVEN DESIGNS

6 OVEN SPECIFICATIONS: hybrid ovens

7-1 CONSTRUCTION: Direct Gas Fired Ovens

7-2 OVEN CONSTRUCTION: Indirect Fired Ovens

7-3 HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEM

8 OVEN CONVEYOR BANDS

9 OVEN CONVEYOR DESIGN

10 PROCESS CONTROL SYSTEMS

11 OVEN SAFETY MONITORING AND ALARM

12-1 OVEN OPERATION: Direct Gas Fired Oven

12-2 OVEN OPERATION: Indirect radiant Oven

13 OVEN EFFICIENCY

14 OVEN INSPECTION AND AUDIT

APPENDIX 1 Ingredients for biscuits

APPENDIX 2 Oven maintenance

APPENDIX 3 Oven manufacturers

APPENDIX 4 Oven band manufacturers

Pre-order at  www.store.elsevier.com/9780128042113 

For 30% author’s discount use code: ATR30

 

Baker Pacific Ltd. 3905 Two Exchange Square, 8 Connaught Place, Hong Kong

Tel. +852 2522 1114       email: bakerman@dircon.co.uk      

LOGO 2014

Baking Process and Engineering Manual

A technical manual for senior technicians in the biscuit industry

 

282 pages including over 200 illustrations. Published in hard copy and e copy by Baker Pacific Ltd.

Engineering

  • Baking oven design and manufacture
  • Management of engineering and maintenance
  • Oven up-grades
  • Introduction of heat recovery system
  • Making and procuring spare parts

Production

  • Improved operation and maintenance
  • Oven efficiencies / reduced production cost
  •  Improved reliability / less downtime

Purchasing

  • Smart buying: oven designs, specifications, controls
  • Contracts: performance guarantees
  • Purchasing of spare parts and  components
  • Directory of  suppliers, including Asian manufacturers

A comprehensive manual that supports the principal activities of

purchasing, production and engineering, providing the basis for training

programs for all levels of management and staff

CONTENTS                                      Pic 1

1  The Biscuits

2  Baking Process

3  Biscuit Design and Output

4  Heat transfer

5  Oven designs

6 Oven specifications: hybrid ovens

7.1 Oven construction: Direct Gas Fired Ovens

7.2 Oven construction: Indirect Fired Ovens     Pic 2

8  Oven conveyor bands                      

9  Oven conveyor design

10 Oven control systems

11.1 Oven operation: Direct Gas Fired Oven

11.2 Oven operation: Indirect radiant Oven

12 Oven maintenance

13 Oven inspection and audit

14 Oven efficiency

APPENDIX 1: Combustion data

APPENDIX 2: Oven manufacturers

APPENDIX 3: Oven band manufacturers

APPENDIX 4: Key components

 

 

 

 

 

 baking by infrared

 

To order for the special price of USD 199.00 please request at our contact page

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Training courses

Baking process and engineering – baking by infrared

  Individual company programs 

Button    The training programs are designed to suit each company’s requirements. Especially valuable for production management, engineering, maintenance staff  and oven operators.

Button    The programs include class work with Power Point presentations, discussion and  questionnaires. The training may also includes on-site training by our senior engineer. This can cover trouble shooting, oven operation, maintenance, planning oven up-grades and efficiency improvements

Button    Normally 2 – 3 modules are presented each day and the complete course is delivered in a 5 day week

Button    Each of our technicians has over 35 years experience as engineers in the biscuit industry in factories in Europe, Asia, North and South America

Post fig 1

 

 

 

 

 

Baker Pacific oven installations baking by infrared radiation

Training Modules

Complete course in one week

Day 1   Introduction / the biscuits / baking process / biscuit design and output

Day 2   Heat transfer / oven designs and specifications

Day 3   Oven bands and conveyor design

Day 4   Oven control / safety systems / oven operation

Day 5   Oven maintenance / inspection and audit / oven efficiency / heat recovery

 

Our training program has exclusive information on:

Button   All types of oven designs / direct and indirect fired / radiant / convection / re-circ ovens

Button   Specifying ovens for different applications for biscuits, cookies and crackers

Button   Setting standards and guarantees for suppliers

Button   Oven bands: types, tracking, cleaning, supporting on skids and rollers

Button   Oven efficiencies with actual data from trials

Button   Energy usage and energy loss

Button   Heat recovery system to save capital and operating costs

Button   Oven operation and maintenance

Button   Oven inspections and audits

 500 Power Point presentation slides

Post fig 2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Complete course given by a senior Baker Pacific engineer USD 4,500.00

(excluding travel and living expenses)

Alternative: complete course materials for in-house presentations USD 240.00

To order please contact Baker Pacific at bakerman@dircon.co.uk

 

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Crackers………………………..

Successful crackers from Europe, USA and Asia………………..

Cracker baking

A wide range of products characterised by crispy, open texture and savoury flavours. Crackers include soda and saltine crackers, cream crackers, snack crackers, water biscuits, puff biscuits, maltkist (sugar topped cracker), “TUC” type, “Ritz” type, vegetable crackers.

In general crackers may have some of the following features which influence the baking process:

  • Doughs which are leavened and fermented with ingredients such as yeast, ammonia and sodium bicarbonate
  • Doughs generally have a high water content (15 – 25%)
  • Cracker doughs are laminated, (the dough sheet is made up from multiple thin layers)
  • Cracker doughs spring or lift in the first part of the oven to achieve the open, flaky texture. This requires humidity and high heat input.
  • Some crackers are baked in strips or complete sheets and broken into individual products after baking
  • Some crackers require a colour contrast between dark blisters and a pale background colour
  • Traditional English crackers such as cream crackers and water biscuits are normally baked on light wire-mesh bands
  • Traditional American crackers, such as soda or saltine are baked on heavy mesh oven bands which are pre-heated to transfer heat rapidly by conduction into the dough pieces
  • Crackers are baked to low moisture contents (1.5% – 2.5%), which requires a high energy input

 

DGF oven

 

Baker Pacific Direct Gas Fired Oven for cracker baking 

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