Technology Transfer


Baker Pacific are the designers and builders of international quality Direct Gas Fired and Indirect Radiant ovens. Our experience in design, manufacture, installation and commissioning is over 30 years originally with Baker Perkins Ltd.

Baker Pacific combination oven Direct Gas Fired / Indirect Radiant Oven
  • Indirect Radiant ovens bake with infrared radiation, providing a stable, penetrative heat transfer, baking the product from inside and creating excellent volume, structure and texture.
  • Suitable for all types of products except high rate crackers. Particularly suitable for all short dough biscuits, cookies and semi-sweet biscuits
  • Combination Direct Gas Fired / Indirect Radiant ovens are the optimum specification for most biscuit and cracker baking
  • Indirect Radiant ovens are suitable for our Heat Recovery System giving the best fuel efficiency as shown by independent test.


The Indirect Radiant oven has a single burner in each zone. The burner heats a circulation system providing radiant heat to the products. The products of combustion do not enter the baking chamber. As the burners draw in combustion air, the excess flue gas is exhausted through a natural convection flue in each zone. This hot flue gas is partially collected and used to heat one or two additional oven zones, which do not have burners.

Baker Pacific Heat Recovery Zone

The Heat Recovery system will typically improve fuel efficiency by 15% as shown by independent tests.

Product Oven type Oven size kWh/kg of biscuits
Rotary moulded Indirect Radiant + Heat Recovery System 1.2m x 100m 0.404
Rotary moulded DGF/convection 1.2m x 60m 0.430
Rotary moulded DGF/convection 1.5m x 100m 0.441
Rotary moulded Indirect Radiant 1.2m x 100m 0.475
Rotary moulded DGF/cyclotherm 1.2m x 60m 0.492
Snack cracker DGF/convection 1.2m x 90m 0.477


  • Oven design data
  • Assembly and detail manufacturing drawings
  • Parts lists
  • Material specifications
  • Key component specifications
  • Control and safety systems
  • Electrical wiring diagrams
  • Installation schedule
  • Operation and maintenance manual
Complete manufacturing drawings and parts lists

For more information, please contact

Crackers for cheese: process and recipes from the late Glyn Sykes

 1. Cream Crackers






Cream Crackers


The cream cracker was first developed in Ireland by Joseph Haughton in 1885 and manufactured by William Jacob in a small bakery. Jacob’s remain a popular brand in UK and Ireland. The brand is now owned by Pladis.


Cream crackers are usually eaten with butter, cheese and other savoury toppings. They are now widely consumed in South America, Asia and Australasia. Popular brands are Arnotts, Khong Guan, Hup Seng, Hwa Tai, Maliban, Mayora (Roma), Britannia Biscuits, Bakers of Durban. Malaysian cream crackers, originally made with many laminations on manual dough brakes with filling between the laminations and oil sprayed, are distinctive.

Product specification

                                                    (1)                               (2)

Dimensions:                             68 x 66 mm                   66 x 66 mm

Thickness:                                6.4 mm                           6.3 mm

Weight:                                      7.7g                                 8.3g

Appearance:                             Evenly blistered

Colour:                                      Pale cream or darker biscuit colour with dark blisters

Texture:                                    Open and flaky, with a crisp bite

Flavour:                                    Mild, rich flavour

Moisture:                                 1.5 – 2.5%


Ingredient list:

Wheat flour, palm oil, salt, sodium bicarbonate, yeast.

Recipe 1

Flour, strong 100.000
Vegetable fat 15.200
Sugar fine 1.400
Yeast fresh 1.400
Malt extract 1.000
Salt 1.150
Sodium bicarbonate 0.060
Water at 32oC 4.400
Water to adjust dough temp. 26.000
Fat flour dusting
Flour, strong 100.000
Vegetable fat 34.000
Salt 2.000


Dough Mixing on a Horizontal High Speed Mixer

  1. Make a suspension of the yeast and water at 32oC
  2. In the mixer bowl, add the fat, sugar, malt, salt and remaining water. Mix on slow speed for 2 minutes
  3. Add flour and sodium bicarbonate. Mix on slow speed for 3 minutes and then on high speed until the dough is clear
  4. Transfer the dough to a tub and prove for 4 hours at 32oC and an RH of 70-80%. Finished dough temperature 29oC – 30oC pH 5.8 – 6.2


Preparation of the fat/flour for dusting

The fat should be in a plastic state at 20oC or less. Care should be taken to avoid oiling when mixing with the flour.

Mix for 10-20 minutes depending on the temperature of the mixing room.

After mixing, sieve the mixture and store at 2 – 3oC for 24 hours before use



6 laminations with the fat/flour mixture between the laminations

Add 18kg of fat/flour dusting to 100kg of dough



Direct Gas Fired oven. Traditionally cream cracker was baked on an open 5 x 5 mesh oven band.

Baking time:                   3.5 – 4 minutes

Baking profile:               300 / 290 / 270 / 270 / 270oC

Final moisture content:   1.5 – 2.5%


Recipe 2

Flour, strong 50.000
Flour, medium 50.000
Shortening 14.268
Malt extract 3.571
Yeast, fresh 1.417
Salt 1.787
Sugar, fine 1.429
Sodium bicarbonate 0.087
Water 28.600


2. Puff crackers








Puff crackers


Puff  crackers are light, open and flaky. Sweet crackers may be dusted with sugar before baking to give a glazed surface.





Butter puff crackers


Product specification

Dimensions:                                       68 – 69 mm diameter

Thickness:                                          10 mm

Weight:                                               10 g

Appearance:                                      Pale with darker blisters

Texture:                                             Very light with open texture

Moisture:                                          1.5%


Ingredient list:

Wheat flour, vegetable oil (palm), wheat starch, salt.



Flour, strong 50.000
Flour, medium 50.000
Margarine 11.000
Tartaric acid 0.200
Cold water 0.200
Margarine 43.000
Malt extract 2.500
Salt 1.500
Cold water 36.000

3. Cornish Wafer type crackers








Cornish Wafer crackers



A very light, flaky cracker, usually eaten with cheese or other savoury topping.

Product specification

Dimensions:                             66 – 68mm

Thickness:                                6.5 – 7.17mm

Weight:                                     8.33g

Appearance:                            Evenly dockered and blistered

Colour:                                     Pale cream

Texture:                                   Open and flaky

Moisture:                                 3.0%


Ingredient list: 

Wheat flour, vegetable oil (palm), wheat starch, salt.



Flour, weak 100.000
Fat (P.K.O) 41.670
Whey powder 0.694
Salt 1.688
Biscuit dust 9.115
Water chilled 40.360



Mix on a horizontal mixer:

1. Add flour (30 %) vegetable fat flakes, whey powder, salt and mix at slow speed for 1 minute.

2. Add remaining flour and chilled water and mix for 4.5 minutes at slow speed.  Dough temperature: 20oC

 Standing time:  20 minutes



Laminate with 7 – 14 layers. Two laminators are used at right angles to the production line, each producing 7 layers.

The dough sheet is rotary cut with separate printing and cutting rolls



Cornish Wafer texture



5×5 wire mesh band

Baking time: 4.25 minutes


4. Water biscuits










Water biscuits



A plain cracker eaten with cheese or other toppings. A crisp, hard bite.


Product specification

                                    (1)                               (2)

Diameter:              68mm                            57mm

Thickness:            5.2mm                            4.5mm

Weight:                 5.3g                                 2.9g

Colour:                 Pale, almost white with dark blisters

Texture:                Open, flaky, quite hard

Moisture:              1.0 – 2.5%


Ingredient lists:

  1. Wheat flour, vegetable oil (palm), salt.
  2. Wheat flour, palm oil, salt, glucose syrup, sodium bicarbonate.


Recipe 1

Flour 100.000
Vegetable fat 7.386
Salt 1.420
Water 27.000



“All in mix” on a horizontal mixer.

Stand dough for 8 up to 18 hours at 18oC



  1. Laminating: Sheeter followed by 4 gauge rolls to feed layering section.
  2. 4 laminations, followed by 4 gauge roll units.
  3. Rotary cutter



Direct Gas Fired Oven with open mesh band

Baking time: 2 minutes

Temperatures:  260 / 260 / 315 / 230oC


Formulations for water biscuits

 Recipe 2

Flour, strong 100.000
Shortening 3.750
Invert syrup 2.500
Salt 1.500
Sodium metabisulphite 0.028
Water 33.000
Mix 6 mins in High Speed Mixer

Mix 22 mins in Vertical Spindle Mixer

Yeast (2.0kg) may be added  to recipe and dough proofed  for 5 hours


Recipe 3    (unfermented)

Flour, weak 50.000
Flour, strong 50.000
Sugar, fine 2.500
Glucose 2.000
Fat 4.500
Margarine 3.500
Milk powder 1.500
Salt 1.000
Water 25.000



5. Crispbread












A flat, crisp, low fat cracker, often containing rye, wholemeal and other local flours. Crispbread is usually eaten with a variety of toppings.


Product specification

Dimensions:                              91 x 38mm

Thickness:                                 4.5mm

Weight:                                      5.6g

Appearance:                             Regular docker pattern, small blisters

pH                                              6.9

Moisture:                                  3.0 – 4%


Ingredient list

Wheat flour, palm oil, barley and barley malt extract, kibbled rye, glucose syrup, ammonium bicarbonate, sodium bicarbonate, chive flakes, salt, natural flavourings, wheat starch.


Formulations for crispbreads

Recipe 1

Biscuit flour 67.000
Bread flour 33.000
Butter 4.794
Margarine 5.137
Golden syrup 4.795
Glucose 4.623
Malt 1.027
Whey powder 2.055
Lecithin 0.332
Sodium acid pyrophosphate 0.462
Salt 1.370
Sodium bicarbonate 0.500
Ammonium bicarbonate 2.312
Yeast 2.568
Water 36.000


 Recipe 2 

Bread flour 33.000
Crushed wheat 67.000
Butter 5.000
Margarine 5.000
Pura agave syrup 4.750
Glucose 4.750
Malt extract 1.000
Semi-skimmed milk powder 2.000
Salt 1.330
Yeast 3.330
Lecithin 0.330
Sodium bicarbonate 0.500
Ammonium bicarbonate 0.867
Sodium acid pyrophosphate 0.427
Water 30.000


Biscuit, Cookie and Cracker Production


Author: Iain Davidson

eBook ISBN: 9780128155806

Paperback ISBN: 9780128155790

Imprint: Academic Press

Pages:  244   Published: July 2018



Key Features

  • Covers the complete processed food production line, from raw materials to packaged product
  • Shows, in detail, the process, production and packaging equipment for biscuits, cookies and   crackers with more than 200 pictures.


  1. The Biscuits
    2. Ingredient storage and handling
    3. Dough Mixing
    4. Dough Feed Systems
    5. Dough Forming: Biscuit cutting machines
    6. Dough Piece Forming: Laminating
    7. Dough Piece Forming: Rotary Moulding
    8. Dough Piece Forming: Depositing
    9. Biscuit Baking Ovens
    10. Oven Conveyor Bands
    11. Oil Spray machines
    12. Biscuit Cooling and handling
    13. Biscuit Sandwiching
    14. Biscuit Packaging
    15. Biscuit Production
    16. Ingredients for biscuits
    17. Test Bakery


Biscuit Process Guides

Baker Pacific’s portfolio of product specifications, formulations and process data is extensive. It includes a wide range of biscuits, cookies and crackers. Our comprehensive Product Process Guides are available for each listed biscuit at USD 85.00. Each manual has the following details to enable you to make an excellent product.


Product Description
Product specification
Production output
Nutritional data
Critical ingredients / ingredient specifications
Production process / Quality control
Production machines
Packaging styles 

Products available from our Portfolio:











 You may order a Biscuit Process Guide our Contacts page for USD 85.00 per product by email to with name, company and address for the invoice

Logo 2015

Biscuit design and output

Book image for post



The following notes from Chapter 3, introduce various factors of biscuit design and forming of the dough pieces which influence the baking operation

Cutter and moulding roll layouts

 The design of the cutting rolls and moulding rolls and dies for deposited cookies determine the pattern of dough pieces on the oven band. The cutting and moulding rolls are designed to give the maximum number of dough pieces per square metre of oven band. In the design of dies for cookies, allowance is made for the spread of the dough on the oven band during baking.Normally the rolls are designed to provide a separation of about 8-10mm between the edges of the biscuits on the oven band. The distance between dough pieces must also allow a sufficiently strong scrap dough lattice to be lifted without breakage after the cutter for cut biscuits.

Rectangular biscuits are baked with the short edge leading, which aids control during cooling, stacking and feeding to the packaging machines. Round biscuits may be “nested” to gain the maximum loading on the oven band.












1  Rotary moulding roll engraving          











2  “ Scrap-less” cutting roll with docker pins and   perforated  edges for the crackers                                          

Scrap and scrap-less designs

 Hard sweet and cracker biscuits are produced from a continuous sheet of dough. The biscuit shape is cut, printed and perforated before being deposited (panned) onto the oven band. Most products are cut into separate individual dough pieces before baking. The scrap dough around the dough pieces is recovered after the dough pieces are cut and returned to the  sheeting machine at the start of the forming process.

Some products, notably soda crackers and some snack crackers are baked in a continuous sheet. The dough sheet is perforated so that it can be easily and automatically broken after baking into the individual biscuits. When products are presented to the oven as a large sheet, there are several considerations.

  1. The edges of the sheet at each side will pick up more heat from the edges of the band, which are not covered by the dough. The edge biscuits will therefore have more colour and this can be excessive. Oven band screens are used on some oven designs which deflect hot air away from the band edges. These are adjustable and will reduce the movement of hot air at the band edge and hence reduce the colour of the edge biscuits. In severe cases the biscuits may be baked with edge scrap dough which is removed after baking. Alternatively steps may sometimes be taken to reduce the temperature of the band edges by forced cooling.
  1. Cracker dough sheets usually shrink during baking and this can cause random breaks at the perforations on the edge of individual biscuits. These random breaks cause problems after baking at the automatic breakers as the biscuit sheets are presented irregularly. It is therefore worthwhile to reduce the size of the dough sheets and these may be cut through at approximately 1.0m length by a large diameter cutting roll (approximately 320mm in diameter). Alternatively the crackers may be cut and baked in strips.







1  Baker Perkins rotary cutter and scrap lift        










2   Crackers cut in strips



 Most moulded and deposited cookies are formed and baked individually. Some extruded products, such as filled bars may be baked in continuous “ropes” and cut after baking. Layer cakes are baked in continuous sheets and slit and cut after baking.


layer cake oven 2









  Layer cake baked on a Baker Pacific Indirect Radiant oven with steel band


Docker pins

During baking, biscuits and crackers expand and lift to form a light open texture. During this process, rapid expansion of water vapour in the dough pieces occurs and the vapour needs to be released. This is accomplished by a series of holes in the biscuit design, called docker holes.  The docker holes are placed in the design to release the vapour evenly and maintain a flat surface and even thickness of the biscuit. This accurate control of flatness and thickness is essential to the successful automatic packaging of the biscuits.


Biscuits with docker holes



Cutter design for Maria showing the docker pin arrangement. Note the dough piece is cut as an oval shape to compensate for shrinkage during baking.  Drawing and design by ErreBi Technology

 Oven band loadings

 The band loading (weight of dough pieces on the oven band) will vary considerably depending on the biscuit design, band layout, biscuit weight, water content in the dough. The loading will influence the design of the oven band supports, drive and tracking system.

                                                               Biscuit                      Oven band loading

                                               dimensions    weight           dough          biscuits     

                                                   mm                  g                    kg/m          kg/m2

“Ritz” type cracker                   48 diam.          3.0                   1.40                 1.04

Vegetable crackers                   48 x 48            3.75                 1.50                 1.17

Soda crackers                            91 x 44 (pair)  6.25                 2.13                 1.48

Marie                                           66 diam.          8.3                   2.00                 1.67

Glucose                                        58 x 37            5.2                   1.92                 1.70

Butter cookie (moulded)          46 x 29            6.0                    3.23                 2.86

Wire cut cookie                          50 diam.          6.5                   2.14                 2.00

Choc chip cookies                      55 diam.          15                    4.40                 4.10

approximate figures based on typical recipes

Oven size and output

 Usually the oven is the critical item in determining the capacity of a complete biscuit line. Other considerations are mixing capacity, forming machine speeds, cooling and packing capacity, these are usually specified to suit the oven capacity.

The output of biscuits from an oven is determined by the baking time and the oven size. To determine the output from an oven, we calculate the number of biscuits across the width of the oven band and multiply this by the number of biscuits contained in the length of the oven. This gives the total number of biscuits contained on the oven band during baking. We divide this by the baking time in minutes and this gives the total of biscuits which will be baked in one minute. The output is usually expressed as the number of biscuits baked in one minute, or in kg of biscuits baked in one hour.

For example, we can calculate the output for a typical rectangular moulded biscuit based on the following data:

Oven size (band width):                                    1200 mm

Oven size (baking chamber length):                60.0 m

Biscuit size:                                                          57 x 35 mm

 Biscuit weight:                                                    4.5g

 Baking time:                                                        3.8 mins

 Output calculation

Biscuits across the oven band:                          27 (allow 43 mm pitch)

Biscuits in the length of the oven:                    923 (allow 65 mm pitch)

Total biscuits contained on the oven band     27 x 923 = 24,921

Biscuits baked per minute:                          24,921 / 3.8 = 6,558

Oven output in kg/hour:                               6,558 x 60 x 4.5 / 1000 = 1,770 kg/hour


  1.  The cutting and moulding rolls are designed to provide the optimum oven band loading.
  2. Consideration is given to the spacing between dough pieces on the band, the spread of cookies during baking and the orientation for the cooling and packing.
  3. Some products such as soda crackers and snack crackers can be baked in a continuous sheet. Care must be taken to avoid excessive edge colour and irregular breakage of the dough sheet in the oven.
  4. Docker pins are used to create holes in the dough pieces to allow the escape of water vapour and to control the surface form of the biscuit, giving a regular flat surface with even blisters on crackers and hard sweet biscuits.
  5. Biscuit output from the production line is usually determined by the size of the oven. The output is calculated from the biscuit size and weight, oven loading, oven band width, length of the baking chamber and the baking time.


Baker Perkins Group: 2015

Errebi Technology Srl: 2015

Manley D. Technology of Biscuits, Crackers and Cookies. Woodhead Publishing Ltd.1996

Manley D. Biscuit, cracker and cookie recipes for the food industry. Woodhead Publishing Ltd.2001.


LOGO 2014

Biscuit Baking Technology, 2nd Edition

Biscuit process and engineering manual – now available for Pre-Order at

For author’s 30% discount use code: ATR30

Cover 281015



Author: Iain Davidson

Expected release: 01 February 2016

Imprint: Academic Press

Print book ISBN: 9780128042113

Pages: 384

Dimensions: 229 x 152

Print Book: GBP 106.25

Paperback: GBP 125.00






A manual for designers and operators on the biscuit oven – baking technology

Table of Contents








7-1 CONSTRUCTION: Direct Gas Fired Ovens

7-2 OVEN CONSTRUCTION: Indirect Fired Ovens






12-1 OVEN OPERATION: Direct Gas Fired Oven

12-2 OVEN OPERATION: Indirect radiant Oven



APPENDIX 1 Ingredients for biscuits

APPENDIX 2 Oven maintenance

APPENDIX 3 Oven manufacturers

APPENDIX 4 Oven band manufacturers

Pre-order at 

For 30% author’s discount use code: ATR30


Baker Pacific Ltd. 3905 Two Exchange Square, 8 Connaught Place, Hong Kong

Tel. +852 2522 1114       email:      

LOGO 2014

Baking Process and Engineering Manual

A technical manual for senior technicians in the biscuit industry


282 pages including over 200 illustrations. Published in hard copy and e copy by Baker Pacific Ltd.


  • Baking oven design and manufacture
  • Management of engineering and maintenance
  • Oven up-grades
  • Introduction of heat recovery system
  • Making and procuring spare parts


  • Improved operation and maintenance
  • Oven efficiencies / reduced production cost
  •  Improved reliability / less downtime


  • Smart buying: oven designs, specifications, controls
  • Contracts: performance guarantees
  • Purchasing of spare parts and  components
  • Directory of  suppliers, including Asian manufacturers

A comprehensive manual that supports the principal activities of

purchasing, production and engineering, providing the basis for training

programs for all levels of management and staff

CONTENTS                                      Pic 1

1  The Biscuits

2  Baking Process

3  Biscuit Design and Output

4  Heat transfer

5  Oven designs

6 Oven specifications: hybrid ovens

7.1 Oven construction: Direct Gas Fired Ovens

7.2 Oven construction: Indirect Fired Ovens     Pic 2

8  Oven conveyor bands                      

9  Oven conveyor design

10 Oven control systems

11.1 Oven operation: Direct Gas Fired Oven

11.2 Oven operation: Indirect radiant Oven

12 Oven maintenance

13 Oven inspection and audit

14 Oven efficiency

APPENDIX 1: Combustion data

APPENDIX 2: Oven manufacturers

APPENDIX 3: Oven band manufacturers

APPENDIX 4: Key components






 baking by infrared


To order for the special price of USD 199.00 please request at our contact page

LOGO 2014

Classic British biscuits

“Biscuits – the first and best convenience food”

The British love a biscuit with a hot drink! Sales reached GBP 2.2 billion (USD 3.5 bn) in 2010 and are forecast to reach GBP 2.6 billion (USD 4.2bn) by 2015. Favourites now are half coated biscuits, Chocolate Digestives, followed by chocolate chip cookies, cream biscuits, such as Custard Creams, wholemeal biscuits and tea biscuits. Biscuits have long been part of the British diet, forming an important nutritional food for travellers for centuries. By the end of the 16th century Royal Nayy sailors had a ration of 1 pound (450gms) of biscuits and 1 gallon (4.5 litres) of beer per day. Biscuits remain the nation’s favourite snack.

LOGO 2014

Filled cookies

Oven pictures


Baker Pacific Indirect Radiant Oven

Radiant heat transfer ensures good structure, texture and maintains colour and flavour in the cookie fillings