Posts

Biscuit, Cookie and Cracker Production

 

Author: Iain Davidson

eBook ISBN: 9780128155806

Paperback ISBN: 9780128155790

Imprint: Academic Press

Pages:  244   Published: July 2018

 

 
 
 

Key Features

  • Covers the complete processed food production line, from raw materials to packaged product
  • Shows, in detail, the process, production and packaging equipment for biscuits, cookies and   crackers with more than 200 pictures.

Contents

  1. The Biscuits
    2. Ingredient storage and handling
    3. Dough Mixing
    4. Dough Feed Systems
    5. Dough Forming: Biscuit cutting machines
    6. Dough Piece Forming: Laminating
    7. Dough Piece Forming: Rotary Moulding
    8. Dough Piece Forming: Depositing
    9. Biscuit Baking Ovens
    10. Oven Conveyor Bands
    11. Oil Spray machines
    12. Biscuit Cooling and handling
    13. Biscuit Sandwiching
    14. Biscuit Packaging
    15. Biscuit Production
    16. Ingredients for biscuits
    17. Test Bakery

Visit http://www.elsevier.com  

https://www.elsevier.com/books/biscuit-cookie-and-cracker-production/davidson/978-0-12-815579-0

Biscuit Process Guides

Baker Pacific’s portfolio of product specifications, formulations and process data is extensive. It includes a wide range of biscuits, cookies and crackers. Our comprehensive Product Process Guides are available for each listed biscuit at USD 85.00. Each manual has the following details to enable you to make an excellent product.

CONTENTS OF A BAKER PACIFIC BISCUIT PROCESS GUIDE

Product Description
Product specification
Production output
Nutritional data
Formulation
Critical ingredients / ingredient specifications
Production process / Quality control
Production machines
Packaging styles 

Products available from our Portfolio:

 

 CRACKERS

 

 SANDWICH BISCUITS

 

HARD SWEET BISCUITS

SHORT DOUGH BISCUITS

 

COOKIES

 

 You may order a Biscuit Process Guide our Contacts page for USD 85.00 per product by email to bakerman@bakerpacific.com.hk with name, company and address for the invoice

Logo 2015

Biscuit design and output

Book image for post

.

 

The following notes from Chapter 3, introduce various factors of biscuit design and forming of the dough pieces which influence the baking operation

Cutter and moulding roll layouts

 The design of the cutting rolls and moulding rolls and dies for deposited cookies determine the pattern of dough pieces on the oven band. The cutting and moulding rolls are designed to give the maximum number of dough pieces per square metre of oven band. In the design of dies for cookies, allowance is made for the spread of the dough on the oven band during baking.Normally the rolls are designed to provide a separation of about 8-10mm between the edges of the biscuits on the oven band. The distance between dough pieces must also allow a sufficiently strong scrap dough lattice to be lifted without breakage after the cutter for cut biscuits.

Rectangular biscuits are baked with the short edge leading, which aids control during cooling, stacking and feeding to the packaging machines. Round biscuits may be “nested” to gain the maximum loading on the oven band.

FIG_3.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1  Rotary moulding roll engraving          

 

 

FIG_3.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2  “ Scrap-less” cutting roll with docker pins and   perforated  edges for the crackers                                          

Scrap and scrap-less designs

 Hard sweet and cracker biscuits are produced from a continuous sheet of dough. The biscuit shape is cut, printed and perforated before being deposited (panned) onto the oven band. Most products are cut into separate individual dough pieces before baking. The scrap dough around the dough pieces is recovered after the dough pieces are cut and returned to the  sheeting machine at the start of the forming process.

Some products, notably soda crackers and some snack crackers are baked in a continuous sheet. The dough sheet is perforated so that it can be easily and automatically broken after baking into the individual biscuits. When products are presented to the oven as a large sheet, there are several considerations.

  1. The edges of the sheet at each side will pick up more heat from the edges of the band, which are not covered by the dough. The edge biscuits will therefore have more colour and this can be excessive. Oven band screens are used on some oven designs which deflect hot air away from the band edges. These are adjustable and will reduce the movement of hot air at the band edge and hence reduce the colour of the edge biscuits. In severe cases the biscuits may be baked with edge scrap dough which is removed after baking. Alternatively steps may sometimes be taken to reduce the temperature of the band edges by forced cooling.
  1. Cracker dough sheets usually shrink during baking and this can cause random breaks at the perforations on the edge of individual biscuits. These random breaks cause problems after baking at the automatic breakers as the biscuit sheets are presented irregularly. It is therefore worthwhile to reduce the size of the dough sheets and these may be cut through at approximately 1.0m length by a large diameter cutting roll (approximately 320mm in diameter). Alternatively the crackers may be cut and baked in strips.

 

 

FIG_3.3

 

 

 

1  Baker Perkins rotary cutter and scrap lift        

 

FIG_3.4

                                                     

 

 

 

 

 

 

2   Crackers cut in strips

 

 

 Most moulded and deposited cookies are formed and baked individually. Some extruded products, such as filled bars may be baked in continuous “ropes” and cut after baking. Layer cakes are baked in continuous sheets and slit and cut after baking.

 

layer cake oven 2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  Layer cake baked on a Baker Pacific Indirect Radiant oven with steel band

 

Docker pins

During baking, biscuits and crackers expand and lift to form a light open texture. During this process, rapid expansion of water vapour in the dough pieces occurs and the vapour needs to be released. This is accomplished by a series of holes in the biscuit design, called docker holes.  The docker holes are placed in the design to release the vapour evenly and maintain a flat surface and even thickness of the biscuit. This accurate control of flatness and thickness is essential to the successful automatic packaging of the biscuits.

FIG_3.7

Biscuits with docker holes

FIG_3.8

FIG_3.9

Cutter design for Maria showing the docker pin arrangement. Note the dough piece is cut as an oval shape to compensate for shrinkage during baking.  Drawing and design by ErreBi Technology

 Oven band loadings

 The band loading (weight of dough pieces on the oven band) will vary considerably depending on the biscuit design, band layout, biscuit weight, water content in the dough. The loading will influence the design of the oven band supports, drive and tracking system.

                                                               Biscuit                      Oven band loading

                                               dimensions    weight           dough          biscuits     

                                                   mm                  g                    kg/m          kg/m2


“Ritz” type cracker                   48 diam.          3.0                   1.40                 1.04

Vegetable crackers                   48 x 48            3.75                 1.50                 1.17

Soda crackers                            91 x 44 (pair)  6.25                 2.13                 1.48

Marie                                           66 diam.          8.3                   2.00                 1.67

Glucose                                        58 x 37            5.2                   1.92                 1.70

Butter cookie (moulded)          46 x 29            6.0                    3.23                 2.86

Wire cut cookie                          50 diam.          6.5                   2.14                 2.00

Choc chip cookies                      55 diam.          15                    4.40                 4.10


approximate figures based on typical recipes

Oven size and output

 Usually the oven is the critical item in determining the capacity of a complete biscuit line. Other considerations are mixing capacity, forming machine speeds, cooling and packing capacity, these are usually specified to suit the oven capacity.

The output of biscuits from an oven is determined by the baking time and the oven size. To determine the output from an oven, we calculate the number of biscuits across the width of the oven band and multiply this by the number of biscuits contained in the length of the oven. This gives the total number of biscuits contained on the oven band during baking. We divide this by the baking time in minutes and this gives the total of biscuits which will be baked in one minute. The output is usually expressed as the number of biscuits baked in one minute, or in kg of biscuits baked in one hour.

For example, we can calculate the output for a typical rectangular moulded biscuit based on the following data:

Oven size (band width):                                    1200 mm

Oven size (baking chamber length):                60.0 m

Biscuit size:                                                          57 x 35 mm

 Biscuit weight:                                                    4.5g

 Baking time:                                                        3.8 mins

 Output calculation

Biscuits across the oven band:                          27 (allow 43 mm pitch)

Biscuits in the length of the oven:                    923 (allow 65 mm pitch)

Total biscuits contained on the oven band     27 x 923 = 24,921

Biscuits baked per minute:                          24,921 / 3.8 = 6,558

Oven output in kg/hour:                               6,558 x 60 x 4.5 / 1000 = 1,770 kg/hour


Summary

  1.  The cutting and moulding rolls are designed to provide the optimum oven band loading.
  2. Consideration is given to the spacing between dough pieces on the band, the spread of cookies during baking and the orientation for the cooling and packing.
  3. Some products such as soda crackers and snack crackers can be baked in a continuous sheet. Care must be taken to avoid excessive edge colour and irregular breakage of the dough sheet in the oven.
  4. Docker pins are used to create holes in the dough pieces to allow the escape of water vapour and to control the surface form of the biscuit, giving a regular flat surface with even blisters on crackers and hard sweet biscuits.
  5. Biscuit output from the production line is usually determined by the size of the oven. The output is calculated from the biscuit size and weight, oven loading, oven band width, length of the baking chamber and the baking time.

References

Baker Perkins Group:  www.bakerperkinsgroup.com 2015

Errebi Technology Srl:  www.errebi.net 2015

Manley D. Technology of Biscuits, Crackers and Cookies. Woodhead Publishing Ltd.1996

Manley D. Biscuit, cracker and cookie recipes for the food industry. Woodhead Publishing Ltd.2001.


 

LOGO 2014

Biscuit Baking Technology, 2nd Edition

Biscuit process and engineering manual – now available for Pre-Order at www.store.elsevier.com/9780128042113

For author’s 30% discount use code: ATR30

Cover 281015

 

 

Author: Iain Davidson

Expected release: 01 February 2016

Imprint: Academic Press

Print book ISBN: 9780128042113

Pages: 384

Dimensions: 229 x 152

Print Book: GBP 106.25

Paperback: GBP 125.00

 

 

 

 

 

A manual for designers and operators on the biscuit oven – baking technology

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION

1 THE BISCUITS

2 BAKING PROCESS

3 BISCUIT DESIGN AND OUTPUT

4 HEAT TRANSFER

5 OVEN DESIGNS

6 OVEN SPECIFICATIONS: hybrid ovens

7-1 CONSTRUCTION: Direct Gas Fired Ovens

7-2 OVEN CONSTRUCTION: Indirect Fired Ovens

7-3 HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEM

8 OVEN CONVEYOR BANDS

9 OVEN CONVEYOR DESIGN

10 PROCESS CONTROL SYSTEMS

11 OVEN SAFETY MONITORING AND ALARM

12-1 OVEN OPERATION: Direct Gas Fired Oven

12-2 OVEN OPERATION: Indirect radiant Oven

13 OVEN EFFICIENCY

14 OVEN INSPECTION AND AUDIT

APPENDIX 1 Ingredients for biscuits

APPENDIX 2 Oven maintenance

APPENDIX 3 Oven manufacturers

APPENDIX 4 Oven band manufacturers

Pre-order at  www.store.elsevier.com/9780128042113 

For 30% author’s discount use code: ATR30

 

Baker Pacific Ltd. 3905 Two Exchange Square, 8 Connaught Place, Hong Kong

Tel. +852 2522 1114       email: bakerman@dircon.co.uk      

LOGO 2014

Baking Process and Engineering Manual

A technical manual for senior technicians in the biscuit industry

 

282 pages including over 200 illustrations. Published in hard copy and e copy by Baker Pacific Ltd.

Engineering

  • Baking oven design and manufacture
  • Management of engineering and maintenance
  • Oven up-grades
  • Introduction of heat recovery system
  • Making and procuring spare parts

Production

  • Improved operation and maintenance
  • Oven efficiencies / reduced production cost
  •  Improved reliability / less downtime

Purchasing

  • Smart buying: oven designs, specifications, controls
  • Contracts: performance guarantees
  • Purchasing of spare parts and  components
  • Directory of  suppliers, including Asian manufacturers

A comprehensive manual that supports the principal activities of

purchasing, production and engineering, providing the basis for training

programs for all levels of management and staff

CONTENTS                                      Pic 1

1  The Biscuits

2  Baking Process

3  Biscuit Design and Output

4  Heat transfer

5  Oven designs

6 Oven specifications: hybrid ovens

7.1 Oven construction: Direct Gas Fired Ovens

7.2 Oven construction: Indirect Fired Ovens     Pic 2

8  Oven conveyor bands                      

9  Oven conveyor design

10 Oven control systems

11.1 Oven operation: Direct Gas Fired Oven

11.2 Oven operation: Indirect radiant Oven

12 Oven maintenance

13 Oven inspection and audit

14 Oven efficiency

APPENDIX 1: Combustion data

APPENDIX 2: Oven manufacturers

APPENDIX 3: Oven band manufacturers

APPENDIX 4: Key components

 

 

 

 

 

 baking by infrared

 

To order for the special price of USD 199.00 please request at our contact page

LOGO 2014

Crackers………………………..

Successful crackers from Europe, USA and Asia………………..

Cracker baking

A wide range of products characterised by crispy, open texture and savoury flavours. Crackers include soda and saltine crackers, cream crackers, snack crackers, water biscuits, puff biscuits, maltkist (sugar topped cracker), “TUC” type, “Ritz” type, vegetable crackers.

In general crackers may have some of the following features which influence the baking process:

  • Doughs which are leavened and fermented with ingredients such as yeast, ammonia and sodium bicarbonate
  • Doughs generally have a high water content (15 – 25%)
  • Cracker doughs are laminated, (the dough sheet is made up from multiple thin layers)
  • Cracker doughs spring or lift in the first part of the oven to achieve the open, flaky texture. This requires humidity and high heat input.
  • Some crackers are baked in strips or complete sheets and broken into individual products after baking
  • Some crackers require a colour contrast between dark blisters and a pale background colour
  • Traditional English crackers such as cream crackers and water biscuits are normally baked on light wire-mesh bands
  • Traditional American crackers, such as soda or saltine are baked on heavy mesh oven bands which are pre-heated to transfer heat rapidly by conduction into the dough pieces
  • Crackers are baked to low moisture contents (1.5% – 2.5%), which requires a high energy input

 

DGF oven

 

Baker Pacific Direct Gas Fired Oven for cracker baking 

Logo 2015

How efficient is your oven? – The products

Each product takes an amount of energy for baking for achieve the correct structure, moisture content and colour. The energy required varies with each type of biscuit, crackers, short dough biscuits and cookies. Each individual biscuit also varies depending on the formulation and quality of the ingredients and the final structure, moisture content and colour required.

Biscuits

Energy is required to bake biscuits as follows:

  1. The dry ingredients must be raised in temperature from ambient to baking temperature
  2. The water in the dough must be raised in temperature from ambient to 100oC
  3. Energy must be provided for the latent heat of evaporation
  4. The water vapour must be raised from 100oC to the baking temperature

The following is a guide to the approximate energy required for different categories of biscuits.

Rotary moulded biscuits:        0.17 – 0.20 kWh/kg of baked biscuits

Hard sweet biscuits:                0.25 – 0.27 kWh/kg of baked biscuits

Crackers:                                 0.30 – 0.33 kWh/kg of baked biscuits

Note: These are theoretical calculations and this is an approximate guide only. Calculations should be made for each formulation and baking profile.

 Read more with “Baking Process and Engineering” manual. 

Baked potato snacks

Production process

“Baked not fried” has become an established healthy, low fat choice for consumers in many markets. Potato snacks and crackers are baked with infrared radiation on Direct Gas Fired ovens or hybrid DGF/Indirect Radiant ovens.

DGF-IR oven

Baker Pacific Direct Gas Fired / Indirect Radiant oven

The production process for potato snacks follows that for crackers and wheat based snacks quite closely. With some modification, cracker lines can produce baked potato snacks in addition to potato crackers.

Potato crackers from Khong Guan, Indonesia                           Potato snacks from Walkers, UK

The ingredients for baked potato snacks may be mixed on continuous mixers or on horizontal high speed mixers with suitable modifications or on plough share type mixers with bottom discharge. All the dry ingredients are blended, fat is added and finally water is added. Horizontal high speed mixers require a steam jacket and suitable modifications to the bearings and seals. The dough is heated during mixing to gelatinise the starches.

HS mixer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

APV Baker High Speed Mixer

The dough is sheeted and gauged to produce a dough sheet of approximately 0.75mm thickness. Potato doughs are tough and require heavy duty forming equipment. The robustness and accuracy of the gauging equipment is critical as variations in thickness of the snacks will cause variations in colour after baking. Achieving the minimum variation in thickness requires large diameter gauge rolls, 400mm diameter and these may be of solid construction to minimise deflection.

gauge rolls

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Heavy duty gauge rolls from Baker Perkins

 

Ripple snacks are formed on a final gauge roll unit, which has grooved rolls, which intermesh to form the ripple in the dough sheet. By using one plain and one grooved roll, other forms such as hollow flutes can be made. These rolls only form the dough sheet and do not alter the thickness. When making plain products the ripple roll gap is opened to allow the product to pass through without ripples.

Pic 5

 

After gauging, the snacks are cut by a rotary cutter. The scrap dough is lifted and may be milled before returning to the mixer. Cracker doughs which have a strong, extensible dough sheet may be returned to the sheeter.

Triangle snacks

 

Potato snacks are baked on pre-heated Z47 type wire mesh or heavy mesh oven bands, such as Ashworth CB5. The ovens require high radiant heat and may be either a Direct Gas Fired (DGF) oven or hybrid DGF / Indirect Radiant oven. Convection ovens are unsuitable as the convective air will disturb the very light snacks on the band and will cause snacks to be blown off the band. Baking times are of the order of 4 minutes and the output of a 1.0m x 40m oven will typically be around 500kgs / hour.

About - ovens

Baker Pacific Radiant oven baking by infrared radiation

The snacks are conveyed directly to the oil spray and flavour applicator. The flavours may be added to the oil and the slurry pumped through the oil spray. This method has the disadvantage of possible blockages and increased cleaning time, particularly where more than one flavour is applied on the same line. The alternative is to use a flavour applicator after the oil spray machine. The flavour is metered on to the snacks while they are agitated in a rotating drum. After flavouring the snacks are cooled and conveyed to packaging.

Storeveyor

 

 

Storeveyor for potato chips from Gough Engineering

Packaging is usually a vertical Form fill seal pack, but may also be a block bottomed bag or a bag in a box.

Crinklys - Walkers packs

Crinklys potato snacks from Jacobs and Walkers Baked from UK

 

Logo 2015

Go! potato

Cracker oven

Baker Pacific oven baking crackers by infrared radiation in China


Go!potato, a very thin, well made potato cracker by Siantar Top, Indonesia. The company, founded in 1988 has become a leading and innovative maker of snacks, biscuits and noodles with revenue of IDR 1.82tn.

Packs in and outer

The cracker is flat, approximately 1.36mm thick and of even colour.

Multi bisc pic

Ingredients: wheat flour, fresh potato, sugar, vegetable shortening and oil, glucose, soya lecithin, MSG, protease, colour, tartrazine CI19140.

PT Siantar Top Tbk,

Jl. Tambak Sawah 21-23, Waru,

Sidoarjo 61258

Indonesia

Go face bite!

Classic British biscuits

“Biscuits – the first and best convenience food”

The British love a biscuit with a hot drink! Sales reached GBP 2.2 billion (USD 3.5 bn) in 2010 and are forecast to reach GBP 2.6 billion (USD 4.2bn) by 2015. Favourites now are half coated biscuits, Chocolate Digestives, followed by chocolate chip cookies, cream biscuits, such as Custard Creams, wholemeal biscuits and tea biscuits. Biscuits have long been part of the British diet, forming an important nutritional food for travellers for centuries. By the end of the 16th century Royal Nayy sailors had a ration of 1 pound (450gms) of biscuits and 1 gallon (4.5 litres) of beer per day. Biscuits remain the nation’s favourite snack.

LOGO 2014